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引用本文:戴雪,钱心月,朱昱腾,郭润言,秦大千,万荣荣,游海林.后三峡工程时代的鄱阳湖湿地淹没动态演变.湖泊科学,2023,35(6):2048-2058. DOI:10.18307/2023.0633
Dai Xue,Qian Xinyue,Zhu Yuteng,Guo Runyan,Qin Daqian,Wan Rongrong,You Hailin.Inundation dynamic changes of the Lake Poyang wetland in the post Three Gorges Dam era. J. Lake Sci.2023,35(6):2048-2058. DOI:10.18307/2023.0633
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后三峡工程时代的鄱阳湖湿地淹没动态演变
戴雪1,2, 钱心月2, 朱昱腾2, 郭润言2, 秦大千2, 万荣荣3,4,5, 游海林6
1.河海大学水灾害防御全国重点实验室, 南京 210098;2.河海大学水文水资源学院, 南京 210098;3.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 中国科学院流域地理学重点实验室, 南京 210008;4.中国科学院大学南京学院, 南京 211135;5.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049;6.江西省科学院流域生态研究所, 南昌 330096
摘要:
周期性的淹没或出露是洪泛型湖泊湿地的重要物理特征,湖泊湿地的淹没动态对其生态过程有显著影响。三峡工程运行以来,鄱阳湖湿地淹没动态发生了显著变化并引发了剧烈生态效应,而目前研究尚未对后三峡工程时代的鄱阳湖淹没动态演变进行系统量化,也制约了对其驱动下湖泊湿地生态系统演变原因与机制的了解。鉴于此,本研究结合水文站实测数据与遥感观测资料,以淹没开始时间、淹没结束时间以及淹没历时3个变量共同表征湖泊湿地淹没动态,从站点及全湖尺度分别对三峡工程运行后鄱阳湖湿地淹没动态的变化趋势、量级及显著性进行定量分析。结果表明:(1)2000—2020年间,鄱阳湖湿地淹没开始时间在64%的湖区被推迟,推迟速率约为1.10天/年;仅在入江水道及碟形湖小幅提前,且提前趋势并不显著;(2)鄱阳湖湿地淹没结束时间在72%的湖区显著提前,提前速率约为1.46天/年;仅在有闸控工程的碟形湖因延迟泄水而有所延迟;(3)受淹没开始时间推迟而结束时间提前的影响,鄱阳湖湿地淹没历时在70%的湖区显著缩短,缩短速率约为2.19天/年,而在有闸控工程的碟形湖则有所延长。本文从站点与全湖尺度分别给出了基于实测而非模型模拟的鄱阳湖淹没动态量化评估结果,从空间尺度揭示了淹没动态在碟形湖与主体湖区的巨大差异。同时,研究结果从淹没动态角度深化了当前对三峡工程水文影响的认识,为鄱阳湖湿地后续的水资源管理及生态水文过程调节提供了理论与数据基础。
关键词:  后三峡工程时代  鄱阳湖  淹没动态演变  趋势  量级  显著性
DOI:10.18307/2023.0633
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金联合基金项目(U2240219)、国家重点研发计划项目(2022YFC3204104)、中央高校基本科研业务费项目(B230201052)、国家自然科学基金面上基金项目(42071146)和江西省青年人才培养项目(20204BCJL23040)联合资助。
Inundation dynamic changes of the Lake Poyang wetland in the post Three Gorges Dam era
Dai Xue1,2, Qian Xinyue2, Zhu Yuteng2, Guo Runyan2, Qin Daqian2, Wan Rongrong3,4,5, You Hailin6
1.National Key Laboratory of Water Disaster Prevention, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P.R. China;2.College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P.R. China;3.Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R. China;4.College of Nanjing, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 211135, P.R. China;5.College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R. China;6.Institute of Watershed Ecology, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330096, P.R. China
Abstract:
Inundation dynamics of lacustrine wetlands impact the surrounding ecosystems significantly. After the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the inundation dynamics of Lake Poyang wetland have been changed dramatically, which is triggering substantial ecological effects. The spatiotemporal evolution of the inundation dynamics of the Lake Poyang wetland in the post-TGD Era has not been systematically quantified yet, which additionally restricts the understanding of the causes and mechanisms of these ecological variations. This study measured inundation dynamics of the Lake Poyang wetland quantitatively via three variables, i.e., the start of the first inundation (SFI), the end of the last inundation (ELI), and the inundation duration (IDU) through combining hydrological data and remote sensing data. The tendency and magnitude of changes in these variables after TGD were systematically revealed at both field and regional scales. Results showed that: (1) During 2000-2020, SFI of the nearly 64% wetland was delayed and the delay rate was about 1.10 days per year. However, in the narrow channel between the lake and the Yangtze River, and the shallow depressions on the bottomland, most sites were inundated prematurely after TGD. (2) For the end of the last inundation, ELI values for nearly 72% of the wetland were significantly advanced with a rate of 1.46 days per year. In the remaining areas, such as the gate-controlled depressions, however, the ELI values were postponed due to the delayed drainage of these gates. (3) Consequently, inundation duration of the Lake Poyang wetland was notably shortened in 70% of the study area with a rate of 2.19 days per year, whereas the inundation duration of the depressions controlled by gates was prolonged in the post TGD era. Our findings quantitatively assessed changes in inundation dynamics of the Lake Poyang wetland after TGD at both field and regional scales. It revealed a great difference of inundation dynamic changes between depressions and the main lake area. This study deepens the current understanding of hydrological impacts of TGD on the Lake Poyang wetland, and provides theoretical and data basis for water resources management and ecohydrological process regulation in the study area.
Key words:  Post Three Gorges Dam era  Lake Poyang wetland  inundation dynamic changes  tendency  magnitude  significance
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