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引用本文:李正飞,蒋小明,王军,刘振元,张君倩,熊雄,谢志才.南水北调中线水源地河流大型无脊椎动物物种多样性及其维持机制.湖泊科学,2023,35(6):2059-2070. DOI:10.18307/2023.0634
Li Zhengfei,Jiang Xiaoming,Wang Jun,Liu Zhenyuan,Zhang Junqian,Xiong Xiong,Xie Zhicai.Species diversity and maintenance mechanisms of macroinvertebrates in the water source area of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. J. Lake Sci.2023,35(6):2059-2070. DOI:10.18307/2023.0634
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南水北调中线水源地河流大型无脊椎动物物种多样性及其维持机制
李正飞1, 蒋小明2, 王军3, 刘振元1, 张君倩1, 熊雄1, 谢志才1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072;2.西安理工大学水利水电学院, 西安 710048;3.华中农业大学水产学院, 武汉 430070
摘要:
生物多样性的形成与维持(即群落构建)一直是生态学研究的重要论题。有关亚热带季风区大型河流生物多样性格局及维持机制的认识仍十分有限。以汉江上游(南水北调中线水源地)为研究区域,以大型无脊椎动物为研究对象,系统开展群落多样性时空格局及其维持机制的研究。于2015—2017年间共采集到大型无脊椎动物333个分类单元,隶属6门10纲25目110科279属,包括水生昆虫278种(83.5%),环节动物门25种(7.5%),软体动物门19种(5.7%),软甲纲7种以及其它动物4种。物种多样性在时间和空间尺度上差异显著:时间上,春季物种数最多(227种),夏季(140种)、秋季(141种)和冬季(144种)较少;空间上,自然河流金水河物种数最多(179种),而金钱河(163种)、月河(149种)、淇河(140种)和泗河(112种)等人类干扰河流相对较少。db-RDA分析表明,尽管不同季节所筛选出的关键因子有所差异,但环境因子和空间因子均显著影响着大型无脊椎动物的群落结构。变差分解分析显示,环境过滤是流域内大型无脊椎动物群落多样性维持的主导因素,而空间过程(扩散限制)则起着次要的作用。本研究对南水北调中线水源地河流生态环境及水生生物多样性的评估和保护具有重要意义。
关键词:  南水北调中线  大型无脊椎动物  物种多样性  时空格局  维持机制
DOI:10.18307/2023.0634
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目 (32271664, 32301370)、神农架国家公园本底资源综合调查研究项目 (SNJNP2022008) 和神农架金丝猴保育生物学湖北省重点实验室开放课题基金 (SNJGKL2022008) 联合资助。
Species diversity and maintenance mechanisms of macroinvertebrates in the water source area of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project
Li Zhengfei1, Jiang Xiaoming2, Wang Jun3, Liu Zhenyuan1, Zhang Junqian1, Xiong Xiong1, Xie Zhicai1
1.State Key Laboratory of Aquatic Biodiversity and Conservation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P.R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulic in Northwest Arid Region of China, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, P.R. China;3.College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China
Abstract:
The mechanisms of biodiversity formation and maintenance (i.e., community assembly) have been an important topic in ecological research. The knowledge regarding biodiversity pattern and maintenance mechanisms of aquatic organisms in subtropical large rivers is still limited. In this study, the spatio-temporal diversity patterns of macroinvertebrate and their underlying mechanisms were systematically studied through a three-year survey (2015-2017) in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River, the water source area of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project. A total of 333 taxa were identified, belonging to 6 phyla, 10 classes, 25 orders and 110 families. Among them, Insecta was the species-richest group (278), followed by annelids (25), molluscs (19), malacostracous (7) and other animals (4). There were significant differences in taxa richness along spatial and temporal scales. Much more taxa were discovered in spring (227) than in summer (140), autumn (141) and winter (144). The near pristine Jinshui River harboured the most abundant taxa (179), while Si (112), Yue (149), Qi (140) and Jinqian (163) Rivers that were experiencing human disturbances, had much lower taxa richness. Distance based redundancy analysis (db-RDA) showed that both environmental variables and spatial factors were key drivers of community assembly, although the number and identity of these variables varied among seasons. Variation partitioning analysis suggested that environmental filtering played a more important role on community variation than spatial structuring. This study can provide important basis and reference for macroinvertebrate diversity assessments and environmental monitoring in this river basin.
Key words:  The middle route of the south-to-north water diversion project  macroinvertebrate  species diversity  spatio-temporal patterns  maintenance mechanisms
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