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引用本文:蒋先逞豪,李瑞利,杜杰,江鎞倩,石聪,毛鹏,邱国玉,沈小雪.“8.8”大地震后九寨沟世界遗产地湖泊淤积与沼泽化现状评价.湖泊科学,2021,33(6):1832-1843. DOI:10.18307/2021.0617
Jiang Xianchenghao,Li Ruili,Du Jie,Jiang Biqian,Shi Cong,Mao Peng,Qiu Guoyu,Shen Xiaoxue.Assessment of the current situation of lake siltation and swamping in the Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage Site after the earthquake. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(6):1832-1843. DOI:10.18307/2021.0617
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“8.8”大地震后九寨沟世界遗产地湖泊淤积与沼泽化现状评价
蒋先逞豪1, 李瑞利1, 杜杰2, 江鎞倩1, 石聪1, 毛鹏1, 邱国玉1, 沈小雪1
1.北京大学深圳研究生院环境与能源学院, 深圳 518055;2.九寨沟管理局, 九寨沟 623402
摘要:
地震及其伴生地貌过程破坏山体植被和土壤,产生的松散物源进入湖泊可能会带来泥沙淤积与沼泽化的风险.为探明九寨沟"8.8"大地震后湖泊淤积与沼泽化现状,以及松散物源的影响,本研究选取九寨沟景区内4个淤积与沼泽化程度不同的湖泊,进行了实地勘查,采用植被指标为主、促淤效应为辅的沼泽化综合评价方法进行现状评价;同时,结合无人机获取的湖泊周边环境和受灾程度信息,探讨了地震后伴生地貌过程及产物对九寨沟湖泊淤积与沼泽化的影响.结果表明:(1)四个湖泊的沼泽化发展模式均是由岸边向湖心推进.(2)各湖淤积与沼泽化程度空间分布特征存在差异,按发展程度从高到低依次表现为:五花海沼泽化程度最高,西北侧处于沼泽化后期(沼泽化指标值为[3,4]);镜海次之,局部处于沼泽化盛期(沼泽化指标值为[1.5,3]);犀牛海再次,仅出入水口处于沼泽化前期(沼泽化指标值为[1.5,2.5]);箭竹海最低,整体处于沼泽化前期(沼泽化指标值为[0,1.5]).(3)松散物源输入造成湖岸淤积程度增加、促进水生植被扩张,是造成九寨沟湖泊淤积和沼泽化发展的重要原因.管理者需重点关注小微湖泊、出入水口、受灾点的沼泽化发展情况.
关键词:  湖泊  淤积  沼泽化  九寨沟  松散物源  “8.8”大地震
DOI:10.18307/2021.0617
分类号:
基金项目:“九寨沟世界自然遗产地植被演替与景观生态环境保护”项目(5132202020000046)资助.
Assessment of the current situation of lake siltation and swamping in the Jiuzhaigou World Natural Heritage Site after the earthquake
Jiang Xianchenghao1, Li Ruili1, Du Jie2, Jiang Biqian1, Shi Cong1, Mao Peng1, Qiu Guoyu1, Shen Xiaoxue1
1.School of Environment and Energy, Peking University Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen 518055, P. R. China;2.Jiuzhaigou Administration Bureau, Jiuzhaigou 623402, P. R. China
Abstract:
The earthquake and its associated geomorphic processes destroy mountain vegetation and soil. The loose material may bring the risk of siltation and swamping after entering the lake. To investigate the current situation of lake siltation and swamping in Jiuzhaigou after the earthquake as well as the impact of the loose materials, this study selected four lakes in Jiuzhaigou scenic area with different siltation and swamping and then conducted the field surveys. The comprehensive evaluation method of swamping was adopted to evaluate the current situation utilizing vegetation indicators as the main principle and siltation promotion effect as the subsidiary principle. Meanwhile, the unmanned aerial vehicle was used to acquire the information of the surrounding environment as well as the damage degree of the lake and the impact of loose material from seismic damage on the siltation and swamping of Jiuzhaigou lakes were further discussed. The results show that:(1) The swamping development model of the four lakes all evolved from the shore to the center of the lake. (2) The spatial distribution characteristics of siltation and swamping degree of various lakes are different, and the degree of development from high to low is shown as follows:Lake Colorful has the highest swamping degree with the northwest side being in the late stage of swamping (index value[3, 4]). Lake Mirror ranks the second with part of it having a high level of swamping (index value[1.5, 3]). The next is Lake Rhino with only the inlet and outlet of the lake being in the early stage of swamping (index value[1.5, 2.5]). Last is the Lake Arrow Bamboo with an overall swamping degree being in the early stage (index value[0, 1.5]). (3) The large amount of loose material caused by seismic damage increases the siltation of the lakeshore and promotes the expansion of aquatic vegetation, which is the main reason for the development of siltation and swamping of Jiuzhaigou lakes. Managers in charge should focus on the development of swamping on small lakes, inlets, outlets, and disaster-stricken spots.
Key words:  Lake  sediment deposition  swamping  Jiuzhaigou  loose material  earthquake on August 8th
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