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引用本文:王永猛,柯森繁,林晨宇,张奔,杨国党,雷青松,邓晓川,石小涛.红河(元江)流域的典型鱼类游泳能力探究及在过鱼设施流速设计中的应用.湖泊科学,2021,33(6):1820-1831. DOI:10.18307/2021.0620
Wang Yongmeng,Ke Senfan,Lin Chenyu,Zhang Ben,Yang Guodang,Lei Qingsong,Deng Xiaochuan,Shi Xiaotao.Investigation of the swimming ability of typical fish in the Red River(Yuanjiang) basin and its application to the design of fish passage facilities. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(6):1820-1831. DOI:10.18307/2021.0620
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红河(元江)流域的典型鱼类游泳能力探究及在过鱼设施流速设计中的应用
王永猛1,2, 柯森繁1,2, 林晨宇3, 张奔1,2, 杨国党1,2, 雷青松4, 邓晓川5, 石小涛1,2
1.三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002;2.湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地, 宜昌 443002;3.河海大学水利水电学院, 南京 210098;4.广州市天河区水务设施建设中心, 广州 510655;5.山东省水利勘测设计院, 济南 250000
摘要:
为探讨红河(元江)流域的典型洄游鱼类游泳能力,给过鱼设施修建设计和鱼类行为学研究提供基础参数,本研究以该流域的野生暗色唇鲮(Semilabeo obscurus)、华南鲤(Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus)和红魾(Bagarius rutilus)3种鱼类(体长范围0.05~0.45 m)为研究对象,在野外现场布置游泳能力测试水槽分别测试了感应流速、临界游泳速度和突进游泳速度.研究结果表明:(1)对比绝对游泳能力与体长相关性,3种鱼的相对游泳能力与体长的相关性更高,均呈显著负相关;(2)3种鱼之间的游泳能力存在差异,红魾的感应流速最大,为(0.10±0.01)m/s,华南鲤的临界游泳速度最大,为(0.66±0.01)m/s,华南鲤的突进游泳速度最大,为(1.48±0.18)m/s;(3)拟合趋流率与水流速度的相关曲线,所有测试鱼的趋流率与流速的函数关系为Pre=19.80V-1.13(R2=0.96,P<0.05),得出95%目标鱼的趋流速度为0.11 m/s;利用生存分析方法,得出95%目标鱼累积疲劳的临界和突进游泳速度分别为0.58、1.01 m/s.(4)当以暗色唇鲮、华南鲤和红魾为主要过鱼对象时,建议过鱼设施的内部流速不应小于0.1 m/s,入口的设计流速范围为0.6~1.0 m/s,休息区域的流速范围为0.1~0.6 m/s,孔口或竖缝等高流速区的设计流速不宜超过0.8 m/s,若过鱼设施孔口边壁或底部加糙,可适当增至0.8~1.0 m/s.本研究中红河(元江)流域鱼类游泳能力等资料为过鱼设施修建及珍稀鱼类保护提供了数据支撑.
关键词:  暗色唇鲮  华南鲤  红魾  游泳能力  过鱼设施  生存分析  红河(元江)流域
DOI:10.18307/2021.0620
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51922065,51679126)、湖北省高等学校优秀中青年科技创新团队计划项目(T201703)和三峡大学学位论文培优基金项目(2020BSPY009)联合资助.
Investigation of the swimming ability of typical fish in the Red River(Yuanjiang) basin and its application to the design of fish passage facilities
Wang Yongmeng1,2, Ke Senfan1,2, Lin Chenyu3, Zhang Ben1,2, Yang Guodang1,2, Lei Qingsong4, Deng Xiaochuan5, Shi Xiaotao1,2
1.College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;2.Hubei International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Fish Passage, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;3.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China;4.Guangzhou Tianhe District Water Facilities Construction Center, Guangzhou 510655, P. R. China;5.Shandong Survey and Design Institute of Water Conservancy, Jinan 250000, P. R. China
Abstract:
To investigate the swimming capability of typical migrants and consequently serve the fishway design in the Red River (Yuanjiang) basin of China, we conducted an in-situ experiment on three presentative wild fish (body length:0.05-0.45 m), i.e., the Semilabeo obscurus, Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus, and Bagarius rutilus, testing their induced flow velocity, critical swimming speed, and burst swimming speed. The results indicated that (1) the relative swimming ability of the three species presented a significantly negative correlation with body length compared to the absolute swimming ability. (2) On the difference between species, the B. rutilus exhibited the highest inductive flow velocity of (0.10±0.01) m/s, while the C. carpio rubrofuscus ranked first at critical swimming velocity ((0.66±0.01) m/s) and burst swimming velocity ((1.48±0.18) m/s). (3) By fitting the percentage of rheotaxis and flow velocity, the functional relationship between them of all tested fish was Pre=19.80V-1.13 (R2=0.96, P<0.05), deriving the rheotaxis velocity of 95% target fish of 0.11 m/s. In survival analysis, the critical and burst swimming speeds of the 95% target fish were 0.58 m/s and 1.01 m/s for cumulative fatigue, respectively. (4) Altogether, the fish passages targeting S. obscurus, C. carpio rubrofuscus, and B. rutilus was suggested to generate the in-channel velocity larger than 0.1 m/s, the velocity at the entrance from 0.6 to 1.0 m/s, the main-flow velocity in rest pools between 0.1 to 0.6 m/s, and the high velocity at verticle slot and orifice less than 0.8 m/s or slightly heighten to 0.8-1.0 m/s with a rougher sidewall or bottom. Our study on fish swimming ability in the Red River (Yuanjiang) facilitates the construction of future fish passage and rare fish conservation.
Key words:  Semilabeo obscurus  Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus  Bagarius rutilus  swimming ability  fish passage  survival analysis  Red River (Yuanjiang) basin
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