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引用本文:卞宇峥,薛滨,张风菊.近三百年来洪泽湖演变过程及其原因分析.湖泊科学,2021,33(6):1844-1856. DOI:10.18307/2021.0618
Bian Yuzheng,Xue Bin,Zhang Fengju.The changes of Lake Hongze and its driving forces over the past three hundred years. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(6):1844-1856. DOI:10.18307/2021.0618
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近三百年来洪泽湖演变过程及其原因分析
卞宇峥1,2, 薛滨1,2, 张风菊2,3
1.南京信息工程大学地理科学学院, 南京 211800;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;3.江苏师范大学地理测绘与城乡规划学院, 徐州 221116
摘要:
洪泽湖是淮河水系中最重要的湖泊之一,是我国的第四大淡水湖,它在防洪、灌溉、航运、跨流域调水以及水资源与水环境保护等方面发挥着重要作用.过去300年来,由于黄淮关系的演变和人类活动的影响,洪泽湖水域面积发生剧烈变化.研究湖泊水域空间变化有助于认识流域环境变化与人类活动影响.本文利用18世纪初以来的古地图、历史文献资料及1981-2016年期间的7期遥感影像数据,采用遥感和地理信息系统技术相结合的方法,分析了近300年来洪泽湖水域时空演变过程及其原因.研究结果表明:过去300年来,洪泽湖面积总体呈减少趋势,年际缩减速率为0.17%,且湖域范围总体表现为由四周向中心缩小的趋势,其中西南湖域的形态变化最为显著.具体而言,清中期以前,黄河多次夺泗入淮,洪泽湖面积变化受黄淮关系、高家堰等水利枢纽的修建以及降水等因素影响.至清末,洪泽湖面积由3078.78 km2下降至2335.73 km2,共减少743.05 km2,其空间形态也发生了剧烈变化,该时期黄河改道、降水以及人口增长导致的湖滨围垦是影响洪泽湖演变的主要原因.建国以来(1949-2016年),洪泽湖面积进一步缩小,由1757.60 km2下降至1488.43 km2,共减少了269.17 km2,其中1995-2000年间湖泊面积下降最为显著,共减少了281.43 km2,湖泊动态变化度达到2.78%,该时期自然因素对湖泊水域面积的影响减弱,而人口增长、围垦及水利工程的修建等人类活动逐渐成为影响洪泽湖演化的主导因素.
关键词:  洪泽湖  时空演变  古地图  遥感
DOI:10.18307/2021.0618
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFA0607100)和湖泊与环境国家重点实验室开放研究基金项目(2018SKL003)联合资助.
The changes of Lake Hongze and its driving forces over the past three hundred years
Bian Yuzheng1,2, Xue Bin1,2, Zhang Fengju2,3
1.School of Geographical Sciences, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 211800, P. R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;3.School of Geography, Geomatics and Planning, Jiangsu Normal University, Xuzhou 221116, P. R. China
Abstract:
Lake Hongze is one of the most important lakes in the Huaihe River water system and the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. It plays an important role in flood control, irrigation, navigation, inter-basin water transfer, water resources and water environment protection. During the past 300 years, the surface area of Lake Hongze has undergone drastic changes due to the changing relationship between Yellow River and Huai River and the influence of human activities. The study on the spatial change of lake water area is helpful to understand the impact of basin environmental change and human activities. Based on ancient maps, historical documents and 7 phase remote sensing image datas from 1981-2016 since the early 18th century, we analyzed the spatial-temporal evolution of Lake Hongze over the past 300 years and its driving factors by using a combination of remote sensing and geographic information system technology in this paper. The results showed that over the past 300 years, the water area of Lake Hongze has presented a decreasing trend, with an interannual reduction rate of 0.17%. The lake area showed a shrinking trend from the surrounding to the center, and the most significant change was occurred in the southwest lake area. Specifically, before the middle of Qing Dynasty, the Yellow River rushed in Sishui and Huaihe River many times, and the change of Lake Hongze area was affected by relationship between the Yellow River and the Huaihe River, the construction of Gaojiayan and other water conservancy projects, and precipitation. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, the area of Lake Hongze decreased 743.05 km2 from 3078.78 km2 to 2335.73 km2, and its spatial form also changed dramatically. During this period, the channel diversion of the Yellow River, precipitation and lakeside reclamation caused by population growth were the main reasons for the evolution of Lake Hongze. During 1949-2016, the area of Lake Hongze has been further reduced 269.17 km2 from 1757.60 km2 to 1488.43 km2. The most significant decline trend was found during the period of 1995 and 2000, with a total decrease area of 281.43 km2 and the lake dynamic change degree reached 2.78%. During this period, natural factors played a relatively small impact on changes of lake area, while human activities such as population growth, reclamation and construction of water conservancy projects became the dominant factor in the evolution of Lake Hongze.
Key words:  Lake Hongze  temporal and spatial evolution  ancient map  remote sensing
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