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引用本文:柯森繁,金志军,李志敏,雷青松,王永猛,石小涛,涂志英.我国8个水电站15种过鱼对象游泳能力研究.湖泊科学,2022,34(5):1608-1619. DOI:10.18307/2022.0515
Ke Senfan,Jin Zhijun,Li Zhimin,Lei Qingsong,Wang Yongmeng,Shi Xiaotao,Tu Zhiying.Swimming ability of fifteen target fish from eight hydropower stations in China. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(5):1608-1619. DOI:10.18307/2022.0515
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我国8个水电站15种过鱼对象游泳能力研究
柯森繁1,2,3, 金志军4, 李志敏5, 雷青松6, 王永猛1,2, 石小涛1,2, 涂志英3
1.三峡大学水利与环境学院,宜昌 443002;2.湖北省鱼类过坝技术国际科技合作基地,宜昌 443002;3.三峡大学三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心,宜昌 443002;4.中国电建集团贵阳勘测设计研究院有限公司,贵阳 550081;5.上海勘测设计研究院有限公司,上海 200434;6.广州市天河区水务设施建设中心,广州 510655
摘要:
近几年我国水电站过鱼设施设计已将过鱼对象游泳能力作为重要参考. 以我国8个水电站主要过鱼对象为研究目标,在野外实验设施条件下测试了15种鱼(四大家鱼组、裂腹鱼组和鳅组)的感应流速和爆发游泳速度. 采用多元线性回归法分别分析了各组鱼体长及水温对游泳能力的影响,并构建了优化的游泳能力预测模型. 结果表明,四大家鱼组、裂腹鱼组和鳅组的感应流速和爆发游速皆与体长呈负相关,感应流速与水温也皆呈负相关关系. 水温升高使四大家鱼组和裂腹鱼组的爆发游速能力增强,而水温对鳅组鱼的爆发游速影响不大,可能与鳅科鱼类特殊的腹部吸附行为有关. 利用绘制的鱼感应水流和爆发未疲劳的数量百分比的生存曲线进行上行及下行过鱼设施流速设计. 结果表明:当鱼感应水流的数量百分比为90 % 时,四大家鱼、裂腹鱼和鳅组幼鱼感应流速分别为3.00、1.67和3.22 BL/s,裂腹鱼和鳅组成鱼感应流速分别为1.27和2.09 BL/s;当鱼爆发未疲劳的数量百分比为90 % 时,四大家鱼、裂腹鱼和鳅组幼鱼爆发游泳速度分别为8.13、9.27和9.61 BL/s,裂腹鱼和鳅组成鱼爆发游泳速度分别为7.64和7.77 BL/s. 当以裂腹鱼或鳅成鱼为主要过鱼对象时,上行过鱼设施内流速范围建议为1.27~7.64和2.09~7.77 BL/s. 当以四大家鱼、裂腹鱼或鳅幼鱼为主要过鱼对象时,下行过鱼设施入口流速建议小于8.13、9.27和9.61 BL/s. 本研究结果可为我国水电站主要过鱼对象的过鱼设施设计提供参考依据.
关键词:  过鱼设施  游泳能力  感应流速  爆发游泳速度
DOI:10.18307/2022.0515
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51922065,51679126)、三峡库区生态环境教育部工程研究中心开放基金项目(KF2022-10)和贵州省水利科技项目(KT202120)联合资助
Swimming ability of fifteen target fish from eight hydropower stations in China
Ke Senfan1,2,3, Jin Zhijun4, Li Zhimin5, Lei Qingsong6, Wang Yongmeng1,2, Shi Xiaotao1,2, Tu Zhiying3
1.College of Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;2.Hubei International Science and Technology Cooperation Base of Fish Passage, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;3.Engineering Research Center of Eco-environment in Three Gorges, Ministry of Education, China Three Gorges University Reservoir Region, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;4.Guiyang Engineering Co., Ltd., Power China, Guiyang 550081, P. R. China;5.Shanghai Investigation, Design and Research Institute Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200434, P. R. China;6.Guangzhou Tianhe District Water Facilities Construction Center, Guangzhou 510655, P. R. China
Abstract:
In recent years, the design of fish passage has taken the swimming capacity of target fish as an important criterion. Fifteen fish species from eight hydropower stations in China, including the four major Chinese carp, Schizothorax and Cobitidae, were selected as target species. Swimming capability was assessed by measuring induced flow velocity (Uind) and burst swimming speed (Uburst) under identical test conditions. The relationship between Uind (or Uburst), water temperature (T) and body length (BL) was assessed using multiple linear regression models and the optimal prediction model of swimming capability was constructed. Uind and Uburst were negatively related to body length, while temperature effect between Uind and Uburst varied between the three target fish species: Uind was negatively related to temperature; Uburst was increased with the temperature for the four major Chinese carp and Schizothorax, while the temperature had little effect on Uburst of Cobitidae, which may be related to the special abdominal adsorption behavior of this fish. The percentage of fish either induced to swim (Uind) or that were not exhausted (Uburst) was plot using survival curves, which was used to set fish passage design criteria. The result showed that 90 % of fish induced to swim were 3.00 BL/s for juvenile four major Chinese carp, 1.67 and 1.27 BL/s for juvenile and adult Schizothorax, 3.22 and 2.09 BL/s for juvenile and adult Cobitidae, respectively. The 90 % of fish were not exhausted were 8.13 BL/s for juvenile four major Chinese carp, 9.27 and 7.64 BL/s for juvenile and adult Schizothorax, 9.61 and 7.77 BL/s for juvenile and adult Cobitidae, respectively. The recommended pool velocity range of fish passage for upper migration was 1.27-7.64 BL/s for adult Schizothorax and 2.09-7.77 BL/s for adult Cobitidae, respectively. The inlet velocity of fish passage for downstream migration was recommended to be less than 8.13, 9.27 and 9.61 BL/s for juvenile four major Chinese carp, juvenile Schizothorax and juvenile Cobitidae, respectively. The results are helpful for the design of fish passage for the main target fish of hydropower stations in China.
Key words:  Fish passage  swimming capability  induced flow velocity  burst swimming speed
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