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引用本文:范少军,周立志,于超.长江中下游升金湖湿地越冬鸭属(Anas)鸟类群落结构和行为特征.湖泊科学,2022,34(5):1596-1607. DOI:10.18307/2022.0514
Fan Shaojun,Zhou Lizhi,Yu Chao.Community structure and behavioral characteristics of wintering dabbling ducks (Anas) at Lake Shengjin, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(5):1596-1607. DOI:10.18307/2022.0514
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长江中下游升金湖湿地越冬鸭属(Anas)鸟类群落结构和行为特征
范少军1,2,3, 周立志1,2,3, 于超4
1.安徽大学资源与环境工程学院, 合肥 230601;2.湿地生态保护与修复安徽省重点实验室, 合肥 230601;3.安徽升金湖湿地生态学国家长期科研基地,东至 247230;4.黄山学院生命与环境科学学院, 黄山 245041
摘要:
升金湖是长江中下游地区典型的浅水通江湖泊,是东亚-澳大利西亚候鸟迁徙路线上水鸟重要的越冬地. 2017年11月-2018年3月,以该湖泊越冬鸭属(Anas)鸟类为研究对象,对其在芦苇湿地、芡实塘、退耕还湿和水生植被恢复湿地4种湿地生境中的群落结构、行为特征及其环境影响因素进行了研究. 结果表明,升金湖分布有10种越冬鸭属鸟类,斑嘴鸭(Anas poecilorhyncha)、绿翅鸭(A. crecca)和绿头鸭(A. platyrhynchos)为该属鸟类群落的优势种. 鸭属鸟类群落在越冬前期种类和数量最多,在整个越冬期,鸭属鸟类在芦苇湿地中种数、数量、密度和多样性指数最高. 在水生植物盖度高、人为活动弱的芦苇湿地,鸭类的主要行为是休息;在食物资源丰富、人为活动强的芡实塘和退耕还湿湿地,其主要行为是觅食和警戒. 鸭属鸟类群落种数、数量、密度和多样性指数与湿地的面积、水域面积、水生植物盖度呈正相关,与干扰度和水深呈负相关. 觅食时间与气温和沉水植物的盖度呈正相关,与水深和干扰度呈负相关,警戒时间与干扰度呈正相关,与挺水植物的盖度呈负相关. 各种恢复类型的湿地生境成为越冬鸭属鸟类的重要栖息地,因此恢复多种湿地栖息地对于越冬水鸟的保护具有重要意义.
关键词:  越冬水鸟  群落结构  行为时间分配  鸭属  升金湖
DOI:10.18307/2022.0514
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32171530)资助
Community structure and behavioral characteristics of wintering dabbling ducks (Anas) at Lake Shengjin, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River floodplain
Fan Shaojun1,2,3, Zhou Lizhi1,2,3, Yu Chao4
1.College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, P. R. China;2.Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecosystem Protection and Restoration (Anhui University), Hefei 230601, P. R. China;3.Anhui Shengjin Lake Wetland Ecology National Long-term Scientific Research Base, Dongzhi 247230, P. R. China;4.College of Life and Environment Science, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041, P. R. China
Abstract:
Lake Shengjin, a typical shallow lake connecting Yangtze River in the middle and lower Yangtze floodplain, is an important wintering habitat for waterbirds on the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. From November 2017 to March of 2018, ccommunity structure, behavioral characteristics of wintering dabbling duck (Anas) and the dominant environmental factors in reed wetland, foxnut ponds, farmland-returning wetland and aquatic vegetation restoration wetland at Lake Shengjin were studied. The results show that there were 10 species of dabbling duck at Lake Shengjin, in which spot-billed duck (Anas poecilorhyncha), common teal (A. crecca) and mallard (A. platyrhynchos) were dominant species in the community. In early winter the species and numbers of dabbling duck reached maximum. During the whole overwintering period, the species, number, density and diversity of dabbling ducks reached the peak in reed wetland. The main behavior of dabbing ducks was taking rest in reed wetlands with large-coverage aquatic plants and weak human activity, and was foraging and vigilance in foxnut ponds and farmland-returning dampness with abundant food and strong human activities. The number, flock size, density, diversity and foraging behaviors of dabbling duck community were positively correlated with the wetland area, water area, aquatic plant coverage, while negatively correlated with disturbance degree and water depth. The foraging time of dabbling duck has positive relationship with temperature and coverage degree of submerged plants, and negative relationship with water depth and disturbance. The vigilance time of dabbling ducks was positively related with disturbance and negatively related with the coverage degree of water plants. Various types of restored wetlands have become important habitats for wintering dabbling ducks, therefore, restoring a variety of wetland habitats is of great importance to the protection of wintering waterbirds.
Key words:  Wintering waterbirds  community structure  behavior time assignment  dabbling ducks  Lake Shengjin
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