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引用本文:戴凌全,王煜,汤正阳,戴会超,任玉峰,常曼琪,吴倩,毛劲乔.三峡水库枯水期补水调度对洞庭湖越冬白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)摄食栖息地的影响.湖泊科学,2022,34(4):1208-1218. DOI:10.18307/2022.0414
Dai Lingquan,Wang Yu,Tang Zhengyang,Dai Huichao,Ren Yufeng,Chang Manqi,Wu Qian,Mao Jingqiao.Impact of water supply of the Three Gorges Reservoir on the foraging habitat of Grus leucogeranus in Lake Dongting during the dry season. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(4):1208-1218. DOI:10.18307/2022.0414
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三峡水库枯水期补水调度对洞庭湖越冬白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)摄食栖息地的影响
戴凌全1,2,3, 王煜3, 汤正阳1, 戴会超1,2, 任玉峰1, 常曼琪2, 吴倩3, 毛劲乔4
1.中国长江三峡集团有限公司智慧长江与水电科学湖北省重点实验室, 宜昌 443133;2.中国长江三峡集团有限公司长江生态环境工程研究中心, 北京 100038;3.三峡大学三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002;4.河海大学水利水电学院, 南京 210098
摘要:
摄食栖息地面积是反映越冬水鸟生存空间的直接指标,三峡水库运行后洞庭湖枯水期水文节律出现新的变化,给越冬水鸟摄食栖息地造成的影响尚不明确.为定量描述三峡水库枯水期不同出库流量对洞庭湖越冬水鸟摄食栖息地的影响,以洞庭湖典型的珍稀越冬水鸟——白鹤(Grus leucogeranus)为指示性候鸟,以白鹤摄食对栖息地水深需求作为关键生态因子,建立白鹤摄食对水深需求的栖息地适宜度模型.构建涵盖长江干流、三口河系、洞庭湖及其四水尾闾河段的江湖一体化耦合水动力模型,实现栖息地水动力分布特征的精确模拟.在此基础上耦合栖息地适宜度模型和水动力模型,建立了面向白鹤摄食对三峡水库出库流量需求的物理栖息地模型,量化不同出库流量对应的白鹤摄食栖息地加权可利用面积,定量分析水库运行对白鹤摄食栖息地面积的影响.结果表明:1月中旬三峡水库不同出库流量下洞庭湖白鹤潜在摄食栖息地面积保持稳定并随出库流量的增加呈增大趋势,维持在101.40~121.84 km2之间,其中东洞庭湖摄食栖息地面积在7.49~9.86 km2之间,南洞庭湖(含横岭湖)摄食栖息地面积在47.37~60.34 km2之间,西洞庭湖摄食栖息地面积在46.54~51.64 km2之间.不同湖区摄食栖息地面积随着三峡水库出库流量的增加均呈增大的趋势,说明三峡水库枯水期补水调度对于维持栖息地面积具有重要作用.较三峡水库运行前相比,白鹤摄食栖息地面积最大增加20.44 km2,对应的增幅为20.16%.成果明晰了三峡水库运行对洞庭湖白鹤摄食栖息地面积的影响规律,可为通过三峡水库补水调度改善洞庭湖越冬水鸟摄食栖息地生境提供理论基础.
关键词:  三峡水库  洞庭湖  白鹤  摄食生境  物理栖息地模型  加权可利用面积
DOI:10.18307/2022.0414
分类号:
基金项目:智慧长江与水电科学湖北省重点实验室开放研究基金项目(ZH20020001)、国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(51809150)、中国博士后基金特别资助项目(2019T120119)和中国博士后基金面上项目(2020M670391)联合资助.
Impact of water supply of the Three Gorges Reservoir on the foraging habitat of Grus leucogeranus in Lake Dongting during the dry season
Dai Lingquan1,2,3, Wang Yu3, Tang Zhengyang1, Dai Huichao1,2, Ren Yufeng1, Chang Manqi2, Wu Qian3, Mao Jingqiao4
1.Hubei Key Laboratory of Intelligent Yangtze and Hydroelectric Science, China Three Gorges Corporation, Yichang 443133, P. R. China;2.Yangtze River Eco-environmental Engineering Research Center, China Three Gorges Corporation, Beijing 100038, P. R. China;3.Hubei Field Observation and Scientific Research Stations for Water Ecosystem in Three Gorges Reservoir, China Three Gorges University, Yichang 443002, P. R. China;4.College of Water Conservancy and Hydropower Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China
Abstract:
Foraging habitat area is the direct indicator of the living space of wintering waterbirds. After the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), the hydrological regime of the Lake Dongting during the dry season has changed greatly. However, the impact of the impoundment on the foraging habitat area of wintering waterbirds is not clear. In order to quantitatively describe the impact of the TGR operation on the foraging habitat area of wintering waterbirds in Lake Dongting, the water depth requirement of theGrus leucogeranus foraging on the habitat is used as the key ecological factor to establish the water depth suitability model for foraging of the bird. The river-lake integrated hydrodynamic model was established covering the Yangtze River mainstream, Lake Dongting and its tributaries. We used the physical habitat simulation model (PHABSIM model) to quantify the weighted usable area (WUA) of the foraging habitat under different release from the TGR during the dry season, established the relationship between the release from the TGR and the WUA of the habitat, and quantitatively analyzed the influence of the TGR on the WUA. The results show that after the operation of the TGR in mid-January, the potential WUA of foraging habitat during the dry season of Lake Dongting was on the increase. The WUA ranges from 101.40 to 121.84 km2, the WUA of eastern Lake Dongting is between 7.49-9.86 km2, the WUA of southern Lake Dongting (including Lake Hengling) is between 47.37-60.34 km2, and the WUA of western Lake Dongting is between 46.54-51.64 km2. The WUA of each lake part gradually increased. Compared with the value before the impoundment of the TGR, the WUA of the foraging habitat of the Grus leucogeranus in Lake Dongting maximally increased by 20.44 km2, an increase of 20.16%. The results clarify the influence of the TGR on the foraging habitat of Grus leucogeranus, and then could provide a theoretical basis for improving the foraging habitat of wintering waterbirds in Lake Dongting through an optimized reservoir operation.
Key words:  Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR)  Lake Dongting  Grus leucogeranus  foraging habitat  physical habitat simulation model (PHABSIM model)  weighted usable area (WUA)
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