投稿中心

审稿中心

编辑中心

期刊出版

网站地图

友情链接

引用本文:危起伟.从中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)生活史剖析其物种保护:困境与突围.湖泊科学,2020,32(5):1297-1319. DOI:10.18307/2020.0509
WEI Qiwei.Conservation of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) based on its life history: Dilemma and breakthrough. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(5):1297-1319. DOI:10.18307/2020.0509
【打印本页】   【HTML】   【下载PDF全文】   查看/发表评论  【EndNote】   【RefMan】   【BibTex】
←前一篇|后一篇→ 过刊浏览    高级检索
本文已被:浏览 417次   下载 320 本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
分享到: 微信 更多
从中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)生活史剖析其物种保护:困境与突围
危起伟
作者单位E-mail
危起伟 中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所, 农业农村部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室, 武汉 430223 weiqw@yfi.ac.cn 
摘要:
国家一级保护动物中华鲟(Acipenser sinensis)自然繁殖已连续中断3年(2017—2019年),自然种群濒临灭绝.本文归纳了中华鲟生活史各阶段的生态需求,指出:葛洲坝阻隔是导致中华鲟自然种群衰退的根本原因,三峡等长江上游特大型梯级水电工程的相继蓄水运行是导致中华鲟自然繁殖中断的关键因素,河道冲刷、航道疏浚与挖沙、防洪及城市景观工程等人类活动使中华鲟仔稚鱼栖息地丧失,进而导致补充群体减少,造成繁殖群体持续萎缩.近40年来,对给予高度期望的补偿中华鲟自然种群衰退的中华鲟人工增殖放流措施没有得到科学有效地实施,造成人工干预力保中华鲟自然种群延续的希望几近破灭.本文探讨了近40年来在中华鲟保护认识、管理、决策和机制上存在的误区与不足,提出以长江十年休渔为契机,亟需以《中华鲟拯救行动计划(2015—2030年)》为纲领,推进落实:1)实施“陆-海-陆”保种工程,恢复人工群体的生物学自然特性;2)大幅度提升科学有效的人工增殖放流;3)改善产卵场环境,放流人工培育亲本以恢复葛洲坝下中华鲟自然繁殖;4)新建旁通道仿自然产卵场,扩大自然繁殖;5)修复索饵场等关键栖息地,提高子代存活率.唯有以恢复中华鲟自然繁殖为核心,实施中华鲟从出生到繁殖全生活史周期(15年)的长期系统性保护,才有望延续和恢复中华鲟自然种群.中华鲟个体大、寿命长、洄游范围广,是长江水生态系统的旗舰种和伞护种,保护好中华鲟对于实现人与自然和谐共处,推动长江流域经济社会绿色可持续发展具有重要意义.
关键词:  中华鲟  濒危鱼类  长江  葛洲坝  三峡工程  保护生物学  水生态  困境
DOI:10.18307/2020.0509
分类号:
基金项目:农业农村部“长江渔业资源与环境调查”财政专项、国家重点基础研究发展计划“973”项目(2015CB150702)和中国水产科学研究院创新团队项目(2020TD08)联合资助.
Conservation of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) based on its life history: Dilemma and breakthrough
WEI Qiwei
Abstract:
The natural spawning activities of the China top-level protected animal, Chinese sturgeon Acipenser sinensis, has been interrupted for three consecutive years (2017-2019) with its natural population on the verge of extinction. Based on the analysis on the life history of fish, the author pointed out that the migratory pathway blocked by the Gezhouba Hydroelectricity Dam is the root cause of the natural population decline. The operation of the Three Gorges Project (TGP), as well as the Xiangjiaba and Xiluodu hydro-dams, results in the water temperature hysteresis in the spawning ground below the Gezhouba Dam, being the fatal factor for the interruption of the natural reproduction. Additionally, river channel erosion by TGP, sand-excavating, flood control & urban landscape engineering, dredging and other human activities along the river constrains the offspring habitat and then leads to decrease in recruitment, which in turn make the spawning stock continues to decline. In the past 40 years, the restocking program, as a measure which has been given high expectations to compensate for the decline of the natural population of Chinese sturgeon, has not been scientifically and effectively implemented, resulting in the near-collapse of the hope by artificial intervention to ensure the continuation of the natural population of the fish. Under the current situation, it is urgent to take the “Chinese sturgeon rescue action plan” as a guideline, to promote the implementation of 5 key protection measures urgently: 1) implement “land-sea-land” seeding project to restore species biological trait in cultured Chinese sturgeon, 2) strengthen restocking program, 3) improve the existing spawning conditions to promote natural reproduction, 4) seek alternative natural spawning grounds, 5) restore feeding grounds and other critical habitats. Only by long-term efforts (15 years) and protect of fish from birth to individuals breeding, can it be expected to continue and restore the natural population of fish. With huge body size, long life and a wide range of migration, the Chinese sturgeon is undoubtedly the flagship species and umbrella species of the Yangtze River ecosystem. The successful protection of Chinese sturgeon is significantly important to achieve harmonious coexistence between human and nature, and promote the sustainable development of the Yangtze River Basin.
Key words:  Acipenser sinensis  endangered fish  Yangtze River  Gezhouba Dam  Three Gorges Project  conservation biology  aquatic ecology  dilemma
分享按钮