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引用本文:包为民,侯露,沈丹丹,倪用鑫.黄土高原大理河流域水沙耦合模型应用研究.湖泊科学,2019,31(4):1120-1131. DOI:10.18307/2019.0407
BAO Weimin,HOU Lu,SHEN Dandan,NI Yongxin.Application of flow-sedimentation coupled model in Dali River Basin of Loess Plateau. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(4):1120-1131. DOI:10.18307/2019.0407
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黄土高原大理河流域水沙耦合模型应用研究
包为民1, 侯露1, 沈丹丹1, 倪用鑫2
1.河海大学水文水资源学院, 南京 210098;2.黄河水利委员会黄河水利科学研究院, 郑州 450003
摘要:
水沙模型是定量描述水沙关系及水沙规律的重要工具,现阶段国内外对于水沙模型的研究大都为基于某个典型流域的经验统计模型或基于流域大量基础资料的物理模型,极大限制了其使用范围及模拟精度.本文建立了结构与参数均具有物理意义的流域水沙耦合物理概念模型,其优点是物理概念清楚,模拟精度高,实用性强,易于深入研究泥沙基本规律.该模型将概念性水文模型和泥沙模型耦合,提出水流挟沙能力和土壤抗侵蚀能力概念,用对数曲线近似描述流域土壤抗侵蚀能力的空间变异性,在拜格诺河道水流悬移质泥沙公式基础上建立概念性沟蚀产沙公式,参照水流汇集相似性建立泥沙汇集演算公式.选取黄河中游大理河流域4个不同流域尺度的实际流域对模型进行应用检验,模拟结果表明,该模型的水流泥沙两部分均有很高的模拟精度,可以很好地模拟黄河中游地区不同流域尺度和年际尺度上的洪水过程和泥沙产生及输移过程,充分证明了该模型结构、参数和计算方法的合理性,可用于定量分析流域内各项水保措施的减水减沙效益及水沙关系变化趋势,对该模型的推广应用可做进一步分析研究.
关键词:  黄土高原  大理河流域  概念模型  耦合模拟  水流  泥沙
DOI:10.18307/2019.0407
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划“973”项目(2016YFC0402703)和中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项(HKY-JBYW-2017-12)联合资助.
Application of flow-sedimentation coupled model in Dali River Basin of Loess Plateau
BAO Weimin1, HOU Lu1, SHEN Dandan1, NI Yongxin2
1.College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China;2.Yellow River Conservancy Commission, Yellow River Institute of Hydraulic Research, Zhengzhou 450003, P. R. China
Abstract:
The flow-sedimentation coupled model is a crucial tool for quantitatively describing the relationship and the law of flow and sedimentation. Studies on flow-sedimentation model at home and abroad are almost empirical statistical models of a typical basin or physics-based model based on considerable description of the watershed at this stage, which greatly limits its usage and simulation accuracy. A conceptual flow-sedimentation coupled simulation model for basins, which combines the conceptual hydrological model with the sediment model, is presented with physical structures and parameters in this paper. Its clear physical concept, high simulation precision and strong practicability make it easy to study the basic law of sediment. We put forward the concept of hydraulic erosion capacity and soil erosion resistance capacity to estimate the sediment yields on the slopes and use logarithmic curve to approximately describe the spatial variability of watershed soil erosion resistance capacity. The calculus formula for sediment yield in gully and sediment concentration is respectively established based on the suspended sediment formula of the Bagnold's River channel and by referring to the similarity of flow. The proposed model is tested in four watersheds of different scales in the Dali River Basin and the results indicate that the model can provide a good simulation of runoff and sediment generation as well as transportation processes at both watershed scale and inter-annual time scale in the middle reaches of the Yellow River, and thus further confirm that the model is reasonable in structure, parameters and calculation methods. The model can be used to quantitatively analyze the benefits of flow and sediment reduction and how their relationship changed due to various water conservation measures implemented in the basin, and can be further analyzed and studied for its popularization and application.
Key words:  Loess Plateau  Dali River Basin  conceptual model  coupled simulation  runoff  sediment
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