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引用本文:毛志刚,谷孝鸿,龚志军,曾庆飞,陈辉辉,李红敏,张胜宇,穆欢.洪泽湖鱼类群落结构及其资源变化.湖泊科学,2019,31(4):1109-1119. DOI:10.18307/2019.0401
MAO Zhigang,GU Xiaohong,GONG Zhijun,ZENG Qingfei,CHEN Huihui,LI Hongmin,ZHANG Shengyu,MU Huan.The structure of fish community and changes of fishery resources in Lake Hongze. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(4):1109-1119. DOI:10.18307/2019.0401
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洪泽湖鱼类群落结构及其资源变化
毛志刚1, 谷孝鸿1, 龚志军1, 曾庆飞1, 陈辉辉1, 李红敏1,2, 张胜宇3, 穆欢3
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.江苏省洪泽湖渔业管理委员会办公室, 淮安 223300
摘要:
根据2017-2018年在洪泽湖湖心、成子湖湾、保护区湖湾和淮河入湖口进行的鱼类资源调查,结合历年渔业捕捞统计数据,分析了该水域的鱼类群落结构及资源变化趋势.调查共采获鱼类51种,隶属10目16科41属,其中鲤形目种类最多,占总数的62.7%;群落优势种为鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)、(Hemiculter leucisculus)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、刀鲚(Coilia nasus)等7种,鱼类群落的丰富度指数、多样性指数和均匀度指数处于一般至较丰富水平.不同类型湖区间鱼类种类及优势种组成存在一定差异,其中湖心、淮河入湖口的生物多样性指数整体高于成子湖湾、保护区湖湾.与历史资料相比,洪泽湖鱼类的物种数量下降,鱼类资源组成结构发生较大变化,鱼类个体小型化趋势明显,捕捞强度过大、水位波动和水质污染是洪泽湖渔业资源衰退的主要因素.
关键词:  种类组成  优势种  生物多样性  渔业资源小型化  衰退因素  洪泽湖
DOI:10.18307/2019.0401
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAD13B01)、中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”自主部署项目(NIGLAS2018GH04)和国家自然科学基金项目(31870449)联合资助.
The structure of fish community and changes of fishery resources in Lake Hongze
MAO Zhigang1, GU Xiaohong1, GONG Zhijun1, ZENG Qingfei1, CHEN Huihui1, LI Hongmin1,2, ZHANG Shengyu3, MU Huan3
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Lake Hongze Fishery Management Commission of Jiangsu Province, Huaian 223300, P. R. China
Abstract:
Based on the historical data of fish catches and fyke nets investigations on fish assemblage from 2017 to 2018 in different lake regions of Lake Hongze, the characteristics of fish community structure and dynamic variation of fishery resources were analyzed. The results showed that only 51 species (belonging to 41 genera, 16 families and 10 orders) were collected and Cypriniformes had the largest species number, accounting for 62.7% of the total species captured. Aristichthys nobilis, Hemiculter leucisculus, Carassius auratus, Coilia nasus, etc. were the total 7 dominant species in the lake. The Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were medium in the whole lake, with higher values in the estuary and central region than two bay areas. Compared with historical data, the composition of fish community and the dominant species had changed, and the miniaturized tendency of fish resources was more obvious. Overfishing, water-level fluctuation and water pollution are potential main reasons for observed shifts in the fish assemblage.
Key words:  Fish composition  dominant species  biodiversity  miniaturization of fish resources  drivers of fisheries decline  Lake Hongze
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