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引用本文:李文华,简敏菲,余厚平,周隆胤,刘淑丽.鄱阳湖“五河”入湖口沉积物中微塑料污染物的特征及其时空分布.湖泊科学,2019,31(2):397-406. DOI:10.18307/2019.0209
LI Wenhua,JIAN Minfei,YU Houping,ZHOU Longyin,LIU Shuli.Characteristics of microplastic pollution and temporal-spatial distribution in the sediments of the five rivers in the Lake Poyang Basin. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(2):397-406. DOI:10.18307/2019.0209
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鄱阳湖“五河”入湖口沉积物中微塑料污染物的特征及其时空分布
李文华1, 简敏菲1,2, 余厚平2, 周隆胤1, 刘淑丽1
1.江西师范大学生命科学学院, 江西省亚热带植物资源保护与利用重点实验室, 南昌 330022;2.江西师范大学鄱阳湖湿地与流域研究教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330022
摘要:
微塑料作为新型环境污染物正日益受到人们密切关注,为探索微塑料在鄱阳湖流域的污染状况,以鄱阳湖流域"五河"入湖口的沉积物为研究对象,分别在3个水文周期(平水期、丰水期和枯水期)选择6个典型区域采集沉积物进行分析.采用浮选分离方法及金相显微鉴定技术,分析鄱阳湖"五河"入湖口沉积物中微塑料的类型、丰度和表面形貌等特征,旨在揭示鄱阳湖沉积物中微塑料的空间分布规律及不同水位期的动态变化.研究结果显示微塑料的类型有碎片类、发泡类、薄膜类和纤维类,其中主要以碎片类微塑料为主,所占百分比为51.95%;70%的微塑料粒径<1 mm,微塑料(<5 mm)的平均丰度为811.11 n/kg,6个样点的微塑料丰度值表现为朱港 > 吴城 > 渡头乡 > 龙口 > 瑞洪镇 > 南矶山.6个样点的微塑料丰度值与鄱阳湖水位动态均具一致性,在枯水期所占比例最高,达到44.41%;平水期次之,达到31.52%;丰水期所占比例最低,仅占24.07%.不同水期、不同样地存在不同程度的微塑料污染问题警示人们要重视塑料垃圾的排放及其污染问题,以减少对湖泊、河流等湿地生态环境的影响.
关键词:  鄱阳湖  沉积物  微塑料  丰度  表面形貌  时空分布
DOI:10.18307/2019.0209
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41461042,31460147)、江西省自然科学基金项目(20171BAB214011)和江西省教育厅科技计划项目(GJJ60311)联合资助.
Characteristics of microplastic pollution and temporal-spatial distribution in the sediments of the five rivers in the Lake Poyang Basin
LI Wenhua1, JIAN Minfei1,2, YU Houping2, ZHOU Longyin1, LIU Shuli1
1.College of Life Science, Jiangxi Provincial Key Lab of Protection and Utilization of Subtropical Plant Resources, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, P. R. China;2.Key Laboratory of Lake Poyang Wetland and Watershed Research, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, P. R. China
Abstract:
As an emerging environmental pollutant, microplastics are receiving increasing attention. In order to explore microplastics pollution in the Lake Poyang, we selected six typical sampling sites in the wetland beach of the five rivers of Lake Poyang Basin as the study area, and collected the sediments in the beach of each sampling sites as the materials and used the sampling profiling method to analyze and identify microplastics in the sediments during the three different hydrological periods of the normal season, wet season and dry season respectively. Flotation separation and metallographic microscopic identification technology are used to study the types, abundance, surface morphology and other characteristics of the microplastics in the sediments of the Lake Poyang wetland, reveal the spatial distribution and temporal dynamic characteristics of the microplastics in the sediments of different wetland beach in Lake Poyang during different water level periods. The results showed that the types of microplastics were debris, foams, films and fibers. Debris-based microplastics were most abundant accounting 51.95% of total microplastics. 70% of the microplastics have a particle size of less than 1 mm, and these tiny microplastics can be easily eaten by organisms and pose a threat to its survival. The average abundance of microplastics is 811.11 n/kg (n denotes the number of microplastics particles and kg denotes the dry weight of sediments), and the abundance value of the spatial distribution of microplastics for the six samples is expressed as in Zhugang > Wucheng > Dutou Village > Longkou > Ruihong Town > Nanji Mountain. The abundance values of microplastics of six samples are consistent with the dynamics of Lake Poyang water level. Highest proportion was found in dry season, reaching 44.41% of the total; lower proportion was found in normal season, reaching 31.52% of the total; and the lowest proportion was found in wet season, and accounting for only 24.07% of the total. The fact of the different pollution problem of microplastics in different sampling sites and different water periods suggests that people should pay attention to the discharge of plastic wastes and the management of the pollution in order to reduce the impact on lakes, rivers and other wetland ecological environment and ecosystems.
Key words:  Lake Poyang  sediments  microplastic  abundance  surface morphology  temporal-spatial distribution
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