|杨姣姣,过龙根,尹成杰,陈晓希,倪乐意.富营养化初期湖泊放养鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)控藻生态效果的初步评估.湖泊科学,2019,31(2):386-396. DOI:10.18307/2019.0208
|YANG Jiaojiao,GUO Longgen,YIN Chengjie,CHEN Xiaoxi,NI Leyi.Preliminary evaluation of ecological effects of silver and bighead carps to control cyanobacterial blooms in the early eutrophication lakes. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(2):386-396. DOI:10.18307/2019.0208
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|富营养化初期湖泊放养鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)控藻生态效果的初步评估
杨姣姣1,2, 过龙根1, 尹成杰1,2, 陈晓希3, 倪乐意1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所东湖湖泊生态系统试验站, 武汉 430072;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.大理市生态文明建设总工程师办公室, 大理 671000
|放养鲢（Hypophthalmichthys molitrix）、鳙（Aristichthys mobilis）控制富营养化湖泊蓝藻水华暴发是当前最有效的手段之一.为评估富营养化初期湖泊鲢、鳙控藻的生态效果，2016年在洱海红山湾开展原位围栏鲢、鳙控藻实验，对围栏内外的浮游生物群落结构及水环境因子的变化进行对比分析，同时测定了围栏内鲢、鳙的生长及摄食节律.结果表明：围栏内鲢、鳙呈现匀速生长，围栏生存环境适宜.根据Egger's模型估算鲢、鳙的日摄食量分别为24.96%和18.18%，鲢的日粮高于鳙；滤食率结果表明，鲢对浮游植物的摄食率高于鳙（分别为3.01和2.19 L/（g·h），而鳙对浮游动物的滤食率高于鲢（分别为18.61和13.54 L/（g·h））.研究期间，围栏内外水体理化因子无显著差异；但围栏内外微囊藻生物量差异明显，并且在7月达到生物量峰值（围栏内为1.7 mg/L，围栏外为2.4 mg/L）.鲢、鳙对浮游植物的优势种类——微囊藻和隐藻有明显的削减效果，6-8月逐渐上升并在8月达到最高（64%）；当浮游植物优势种由微囊藻替换为硅藻门和绿藻门的种类时，鲢、鳙的削减效率不明显（10-11月为负值）.此外，鲢、鳙放养显著降低了浮游甲壳动物的总生物量和枝角类生物量.因此，结合实验结果得出，鲢具有更高的控藻能力，尤其对微囊藻水华，但同时具备了较高对浮游甲壳动物的削减能力，需要进一步分析富营养化初期湖泊——洱海中实施非经典生物操纵的适宜性.
|关键词: 富营养化初期湖泊 鲢 鳙 浮游生物 蓝藻水华 摄食率 洱海
|Preliminary evaluation of ecological effects of silver and bighead carps to control cyanobacterial blooms in the early eutrophication lakes
YANG Jiaojiao1,2, GUO Longgen1, YIN Chengjie1,2, CHEN Xiaoxi3, NI Leyi1
1.Donghu Experimental Station of Lake Ecosystems, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.General Engineer's Office of Dali Committee for the Construction of Ecological Civilization, Dali 671000, P. R. China
|It is one of the most effective ways to control the outbreak of cyanobacteria blooms in eutrophic lakes by stocking silver and bighead carps. In order to evaluate the ecological effects of controlling algae by silver and bighead carps in early eutrophication lakes. In 2016, a little biomanipulation in-situ pen with the stock of silver and bighead carps was built to control cyanobacterial blooms in Hongshan Bay of Lake Erhai. The changes of plankton community structure and water environmental factors were compared and analyzed within and outside the pen. Meanwhile, the growth and feeding rhythm of silver and bighead carps were measured. The pen-cultured silver and bighead carp all displayed normal growth, the survival environment of the pen is suitable. Daily rations of silver and bighead carp were estimated by Egger's model in the main growing season. Filtration rate was calculated from the daily ration and the density plankton in the lake. Daily rations of silver and bighead carp was 24.96% and 18.18%. The daily rations silver carp is higher than that of bighead carp. Filtration rates of silver and bighead carp for phytoplankton were 3.01 L/(g·h) and 2.19 L/(g·h), respectively, and filtration rates for zooplankton were 13.54 L/(g·h) and 18.61 L/(g·h), respectively. Silver carp had a stronger ability of eliminating phytoplankton than bighead carp. Bighead carp had a stronger ability of eliminating zooplankton than silver carp. During the study, there was no significant difference in the environmental parameters within and outside the pen. The biomass of Microcystis reached its peak in July (1.7 mg/L in the fish pen and 2.4 mg/L in the surrounding lake water). The Microcystis biomass was significantly lower in the pen. The present stocking density of silver and bighead carp(about 20 g/m3 in June)was effective to control Microcystis. From June to August, the reduction rate of the phytoplankton in the silver and bighead carp gradually increased, and the rate of reduction was up to 64% in August. When phytoplankton's dominant species Chlorophyta and diatom replace Microcystis, the rate of reduction decreased gradually, with negative values in October and November. Furthermore, the biomass of crustacean zooplankton biomass and cladocerans biomass were significantly lower in the pen. Therefore, in combination with several experimental results, silver carp had a stronger ability of eliminating phytoplankton than bighead carp. Especially for Microcystis blooms, silver carp at the same time have the higher on the reduction ability of crustacean zooplankton. We need to further analyze the suitability of non-traditional biological manipulation in the early stage of eutrophication Lake Erhai.
|Key words: Early eutrophication lakes silver carp bighead carp plankton cyanobacterial blooms filtration rate Lake Erhai