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引用本文:刘昔,王智,王学雷,杨超,宋辛辛,吕晓蓉,李珍.应用物种敏感性分布评价中国湖泊水体中重金属污染的生态风险.湖泊科学,2018,30(5):1206-1217. DOI:10.18307/2018.0504
LIU Xi,WANG Zhi,WANG Xuelei,YANG Chao,SONG Xinxin,LV Xiaorong,LI Zhen.Ecological risks assessment of selected heavy metals in the waters of Chinese lakes based on species sensitivity distributions. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(5):1206-1217. DOI:10.18307/2018.0504
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应用物种敏感性分布评价中国湖泊水体中重金属污染的生态风险
刘昔1,2, 王智1, 王学雷1, 杨超1, 宋辛辛1,2, 吕晓蓉1,2, 李珍2,3
1.中国科学院测量与地球物理研究所环境与灾害监测评估湖北省重点实验室, 武汉 430061;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.中国科学院武汉植物园水生植物与流域生态重点实验室, 武汉 430061
摘要:
为总体了解我国主要湖泊水体重金属污染现状与生态风险,本文通过历史数据收集,利用物种敏感性分布(SSD)模型与主成分分析法,分析了我国18个湖泊或水域中6种重金属(Zn、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg和Pb)的分布情况以及其对湖泊淡水生物的潜在生态风险(PAF)和联合生态风险(msPAF).结果表明:在18湖泊中,6种重金属在湖泊水体中的浓度由高至低依次为Zn(均值为17.06 μg/L,范围为4.03~29.33 μg/L)、Pb(均值为9.33 μg/L,范围为0.04~33.7 μg/L)、Cr(均值为5.56 μg/L,范围为0.65~40.0 μg/L)、Cu(均值为3.71 μg/L,范围为0.02~10.2 μg/L)、Cd(均值为1.17 μg/L,范围为0.01~13.6 μg/L)和Hg(均值为0.19 μg/L,范围为0.03~1.04 μg/L);18个湖泊中重金属的分布情况由3个主成分反映,F1(Cu、Zn、Hg)、F2(Pb、Cd)和F3(Cr、Cu)的贡献率分别为28.50%、24.17%和18.40%,其分布情况受经济和地域差异影响较小;SSD模型显示,不同重金属对全部淡水生物的HC5值不同,从小到大依次为Cu > Cr > Hg > Cd > Pb > Zn,淡水生物对重金属Cu的敏感性最高,对重金属Zn的敏感性最低;将选取的18个湖泊按msPAF排序,由高到低依次为呼伦湖(67.0%) > 鲁湖(56.7%) > 洱海(52.7%) > 金银湖(52.3%) > 太湖(40.5%) > 墨水湖(39.3%) > 滆湖(30.2%) > 鄱阳湖(26.8%) > 洪泽湖(23.1%) > 高宝卲伯湖(22.4%) > 巢湖(20.7%) > 乌梁素海(19.7%) > 东湖(19.1%) > 梁子湖(4.0%) > 汤逊湖(2.0%) > 洞庭湖(1%) > 洪湖(0)=骆马湖(0).研究结果对于了解我国淡水湖泊水质现状和环境安全风险具有重要意义,为湖泊的进一步保护与管理提供了一定的科学依据.
关键词:  湖泊  重金属  淡水生物  生态风险  物种敏感性分布
DOI:10.18307/2018.0504
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41601545,41571202)和中国科学院青年创新促进会项目(2018369)联合资助.
Ecological risks assessment of selected heavy metals in the waters of Chinese lakes based on species sensitivity distributions
LIU Xi1,2, WANG Zhi1, WANG Xuelei1, YANG Chao1, SONG Xinxin1,2, LV Xiaorong1,2, LI Zhen2,3
1.Key Laboratory for Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Evaluation of Hubei Province, Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430061, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430061, P. R. China
Abstract:
In order to learn about the status of heavy metals and ecological risks in Chinese lakes, species sensitivity distributions (SSD) method was applied to assess the ecological risk of six kinds of heavy metal (Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb) to freshwater organisms, while principal component analysis was applied to analyze the distributions and source of heavy metal. The evaluation indexes are including the potential affected fractions (PAF) and multi-substance PAF (msPAF), which rank the ecological risk levels. The results showed that among the 18 lakes, the average concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr and Hg were 17.06 μg/L (range is 4.03-29.33 μg/L), 9.33 μg/L (range is 0.04-33.7 μg/L), 5.56 μg/L (range is 0.65-40.0 μg/L), 3.71 μg/L (range is 0.02-10.2 μg/L), 1.17 μg/L (range is 0.01-13.6 μg/L) and 0.19 μg/L (range is 0.03-1.04 μg/L), respectively. The distribution of heavy metal in 18 lakes was reflected by three principal components with the contribution rates of F1 (Cu, Zn and Hg), F2 (Pb and Cd) and F3 (Cr, Cu) were 28.50%, 24.17% and 18.40%, respectively, which was less affected by economic and geographical differences. Different kinds of heavy metal have different HC5 values for all freshwater organisms with Cu for the lowest HC5 value (the order is Cu < Cr < Hg < Cd < Pb < Zn), indicating freshwater organisms have the highest sensitivity to Cu. In the selected 18 lakes, the order of msPAF of heavy metal in each lake was:Lake Hulun (67.0%) > Lake Luhu (56.7%) > Lake Erhai (52.7%) > Lake Jinyin (52.3%) > Lake Taihu (40.5%) > Lake Moshui (39.3%) > Lake Gehu (30.2%) > Lake Poyang (26.8%) > Lake Hongze (23.1%) > Lake Gaobao (22.4%) > Lake Chaohu (20.7%) > Lake Wuliangsu (19.7%) > Lake Donghu (19.1%) > Lake Liangzi (4.0%) > Lake Tangxun (2.0%) > Lake Dongting (1.0%) > Lake Honghu (0)=Lake Luoma (0). Based on the above work, the ecological risks of heavy metal pollution in lakes were evaluated, which provided a scientific theoretical basis for lake risk management and protection.
Key words:  Lakes  heavy metals  freshwater organisms  ecological risks  species sensitivity distributions
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