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引用本文:刘俊杰,陆隽,朱广伟,高鸣远,闻亮,姚敏,聂青.2009—2017年太湖湖泛发生特征及其影响因素.湖泊科学,2018,30(5):1196-1205. DOI:10.18307/2018.0503
LIU Junjie,LU Jun,ZHU Guangwei,GAO Mingyuan,WEN Liang,YAO Min,NIE Qing.Occurrence characteristics of black patch events and their influencing factors in Lake Taihu during 2009 and 2017. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(5):1196-1205. DOI:10.18307/2018.0503
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2009—2017年太湖湖泛发生特征及其影响因素
刘俊杰1, 陆隽1, 朱广伟2, 高鸣远1, 闻亮1, 姚敏1, 聂青1
1.江苏省水文水资源勘测局, 南京 210029;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所太湖湖泊生态系统研究站, 南京 210008
摘要:
湖泛是太湖蓝藻水华较为独特的灾害表征形式,也是危害湖泊生态服务功能的主要因素,认知其发生机制、演变特征对湖泊蓝藻水华灾害防控具有重要作用.本文基于2009-2017年江苏省水文部门逐年4-10月对太湖湖泛易发区现场巡查获得的湖泛发生状况数据,结合期间水质、入湖水量、营养盐负荷等环境条件变化监测,分析了太湖水域湖泛发生的时空变化特征,研究了湖泛发生前后的环境因子变化规律,探讨了湖泛强度年际波动成因.结果表明,2009-2017年太湖共发现面积超过0.01 km2的湖泛61起,年发生次数3~17次不等;湖泛发生位置主要集中在太湖湖西沿岸带,9年发生了32次,占总频次的一半以上;其次为梅梁湾;贡湖相对较少,而巡查的东部湖区未发现湖泛事件.通过对湖泛发生日与前10日的环境条件对比分析发现,湖泛发生前5天持续的高温、低压和低风速等气象条件有利于湖泛发生:气温连续高于25℃、气压低于101.0 kPa,有利于诱发湖泛;主导风向为东南风也有利于太湖西北部蓝藻水华严重区域的湖泛发生;大量蓝藻水华物质是湖泛发生的重要物质基础:湖泛发生前10日,湖体平均藻密度基本在1500万cells/L以上.湖泛发生强度还受前一年营养盐外源负荷的影响,湖泛发生频次较高的年份,前一年总磷和总氮营养盐入湖负荷也均处于较高水平.研究表明,尽管2007年无锡贡湖水厂发生饮用水危机以来太湖流域已经开展了大量的水环境治理工程,但是截至目前,太湖的湖泛发生风险仍处于较高水平,在营养盐还未控制到较低水平之前,太湖的湖泛巡查与防控仍是十分必要和艰巨的任务.
关键词:  湖泛  蓝藻水华  气象条件  灾害预报  太湖
DOI:10.18307/2018.0503
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07203001,2012ZX07101-010)、国家自然科学基金项目(41671494)、中国科学院前沿科学重点研究项目(QYZDJ-SSW-DQC008)和中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”战略规划课题(NIGLAS2017GH04)联合资助.
Occurrence characteristics of black patch events and their influencing factors in Lake Taihu during 2009 and 2017
LIU Junjie1, LU Jun1, ZHU Guangwei2, GAO Mingyuan1, WEN Liang1, YAO Min1, NIE Qing1
1.Jiangsu Province Hydrology and Water Resources Investigation Bureau, Nanjing 210029, P. R. China;2.Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
Black patch events caused by cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu were very special ecological phenomenon and crucial important ecological disasters. Clarifying the cause of formation and mechanism of black water event is very useful for the risk forecasting and prevention. In this paper, occurrence of black patch events during 2009 and 2017 and their relationship with the environmental factors in Lake Taihu were analyzed. Based on the daily survey undertaken by Jiangsu Bureau of Hydrology and Water Resource, 61 black water events which larger than 0.01 km2 were reported during 2009 and 2017, with 3 to 17 times per year. More than half of these black patch events happened at the northwestern coastal region of Lake Taihu, where there is the most polluted input. Continuely hot weather, low air pressure and low wind speed conditions for five days benefited the occurrence of the black patch events. Southeast wind direction also made the bloom materials moving to northwest coastal region and product black patch, which bring lots of pollution from that region. Accumulation of massive bloom material supplied the substance condition for the black patch events. In addition, nutrient loading of the former year was also related to the intensity of black patch event in Lake Taihu. The research indicated that Lake Taihu has high risk of black patch event, although plenty of restoration project has been demonstrated in the past 10 years. Warmer climate and high nutrient background were the major factors delayed the tremendous efforts in the past 10 years. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting are still very necessary for the control and management of risk from cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu.
Key words:  Black patch event  cyanobacterial bloom  weather condition  disaster forecast  Lake Taihu
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