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引用本文:陈锋,雷欢,郑海涛,王文君,方艳红,杨钟,黄道明.珠江干流梯级开发对鱼类的影响与减缓对策.湖泊科学,2018,30(4):1097-1108. DOI:10.18307/2018.0422
CHEN Feng,LEI Huan,ZHENG Haitao,WANG Wenjun,FANG Yanhong,YANG Zhong,HUANG Daoming.Impacts of cascade reservoirs on fishes in the mainstream of Pearl River and mitigation measures. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(4):1097-1108. DOI:10.18307/2018.0422
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珠江干流梯级开发对鱼类的影响与减缓对策
陈锋, 雷欢, 郑海涛, 王文君, 方艳红, 杨钟, 黄道明
水利部中国科学院水工程生态研究所, 水利部水工程生态效应与生态修复重点实验室, 武汉 430079
摘要:
2013年6-7月对珠江龙滩库尾至长洲坝下江段干支流鱼类进行了调查,共采集到鱼类6418尾,隶属于10目23科82属122种.分析了渔获物的种类组成与分布、生态类型、珍稀濒危特有鱼类采样情况、各江段群落相似度和鱼类多样性等,并与该区域鱼类历史记录进行了对比分析.总体来看,珠江干流梯级开发后,由于大坝阻隔、水文情势改变等,鱼类资源发生了较大变化,河海洄游性鱼类和河口鱼类受大坝阻隔影响分布范围变窄;珍稀濒危特有鱼类由于生境破坏,种群规模变小,濒危程度加剧;库中江段流水性鱼类种类数和资源量显著下降,静缓流鱼类成为优势种;外来鱼类种类多、分布广.对导致珠江干流鱼类资源衰退的其他原因进行了分析,主要包括过度捕捞、生境破坏、水污染和外来鱼类入侵等.针对珠江干流梯级开发及鱼类资源现状,提出了栖息地保护、河流连通性恢复、鱼类增殖放流站建设、生态调度、渔政管理和生态补偿等措施建议.
关键词:  珠江  梯级开发  鱼类  影响  减缓对策
DOI:10.18307/2018.0422
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51609159)和国家重点基础研究发展计划(2016YFA0601001)联合资助.
Impacts of cascade reservoirs on fishes in the mainstream of Pearl River and mitigation measures
CHEN Feng, LEI Huan, ZHENG Haitao, WANG Wenjun, FANG Yanhong, YANG Zhong, HUANG Daoming
Key Laboratory of Ecological Impacts of Hydraulic-Projects and Restoration of Aquatic Ecosystem of Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Hydroecology, Ministry of Water Resources and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430079, P. R. China
Abstract:
The fish resources in the mainstream and its tributaries of the Pearl River from Longtan Dam to Changzhou Dam were investigated in June-July 2013. A total of 6418 fish specimens were collected, belonging to 10 orders, 23 families, 82 genera and 122 species. This study analysed the species composition and distribution, ecological types of fishes, sampling result of rare and endemic fish, the community similarity and diversity of fishes of each sample reach, and compared with the historical record. Overall, after cascade reservoirs in the Pearl River, massive changes in fish resources had taken place, such as river migratory fish and estuarine fish distribution range becoming narrow due to the dam barrier effect; rare and endemic fish being more endangered due to habitat loss; flow water fish species decreasing significantly in the reservoirs, while the static flow fish becoming the dominant species; and exotic fish species multiplying and distributing widely. Some other reasons for the decline of fish resources in the Pearl River mainstream were analysed, including overfishing, habitat destruction, water pollution, invasion of exotic fish and so on. In view of the Pearl River cascade reservoirs and the status of fishery resources, this study proposed mitigation measures such as habitat protection, restoration of river connectivity, fish breeding and releasing station construction, ecological scheduling, fishery management and ecological compensation.
Key words:  Pearl River  cascade reservoirs  fish  impact  mitigation measures
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