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引用本文:HADEER Sheashaa,赵小双,ALAA Salem,刘演,赖晓鹤,陈中原.尼罗河三角洲早—中全新世气候—环境变化对早期农业发展的影响.湖泊科学,2018,30(3):857-864. DOI:10.18307/2018.0327
HADEER Sheashaa,ZHAO Xiaoshuang,ALAA Salem,LIU Yan,LAI Xiaohe,CHEN Zhongyuan.Early-middle Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the Nile delta and implications for early agriculture. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(3):857-864. DOI:10.18307/2018.0327
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尼罗河三角洲早—中全新世气候—环境变化对早期农业发展的影响
HADEER Sheashaa1, 赵小双1, ALAA Salem2, 刘演1, 赖晓鹤1, 陈中原1
1.华东师范大学河口海岸国家重点实验室, 上海 200062;2.Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
摘要:
对尼罗河三角洲平原东北部一个古埃及文化遗址(Kom El-Khilgan)1.5 m长的沉积物剖面KH1开展14C测年、沉积物粒度和孢粉分析.根据岩性、粒度和测年等结果综合判定:剖面150~100 cm地层为早全新世河流相沉积;100~27 cm地层为早、中全新世(8000-4000 cal a BP)三角洲冲积平原沉积,其中涵盖了古埃及前王朝至古王国时期(6500-4131 cal a BP)的人类活动信息;27~0 cm为现代表土层.孢粉分析结果反映了在距今8000~4000 a期间:1)研究区气候由湿润过渡为温和,最后趋于干旱;2)随着气候变干,尼罗河上游水文变化对三角洲环境影响减小,研究区由沼泽湿地逐渐过渡为干草甸环境,更多的土地可以被人类利用;3)常被用来指示农业活动的>35 μm禾本科、陶器碎片和炭屑的出现并逐渐增加,表明该遗址附近的人类农业活动始于距今6500 a左右,并持续至距今4000 a前后.上述证据表明尼罗河三角洲全新世早-中期湿润向干旱过渡的气候驱动了人类农业活动的开展.本研究为进一步探讨尼罗河三角洲古文明对环境适应性研究提供了科学依据.
关键词:  全新世气候  早期农业活动  尼罗河三角洲
DOI:10.18307/2018.0327
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学国际合作重点基金项目(41620104004)资助.
Early-middle Holocene climatic and environmental changes in the Nile delta and implications for early agriculture
HADEER Sheashaa1, ZHAO Xiaoshuang1, ALAA Salem2, LIU Yan1, LAI Xiaohe1, CHEN Zhongyuan1
1.State Key Laboratory of Estuary and Coast, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, P. R. China;2.Faculty of Science, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafrelsheikh, Egypt
Abstract:
A detailed reconstruction of the past vegetation and human occupation at the site "Kom El-Khilgan", northeastern Nile delta, was operated in the light of a 1.5 m sediment profile KH1 taken at the site. Lithology analyses coupled with grain size and radiocarbon dating results revealed that the early Holocene strata(150-100 cm)consist of fluvial turtle-beds, and the middle Holocene strata (100-27 cm) generally composed of delta sediments, and the overlying strata was topsoil. The site contained the information of Pre-dynasty to Old Kingdom epoch (6500-4200 cal a BP) of the ancient Egyptian civilization. Pollen and spore analysis indicated:1) from 8000 to 4000 cal a BP, the climate changed from wet to moderate and then much drier; 2) in response, the early swampy wetlands of the site area became dry grassland, which provided the ancient foragers habitable and arable land for the early agriculture; 3) evidences from >35 μm Poaceae, pottery fragments and mirocharcoals in the site profile indicated that agricultural activity occurred about 6500 years ago at the site and was not disrupted till 4000 cal a BP. All these above suggest that the Nile delta transformed from non-habitable swamp into an agricultural center. The result of this paper sheds light on the further study of the ancient agricultural adaptation to the environment change in the Nile delta.
Key words:  Holocene climate  early agriculture  the Nile delta
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