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引用本文:侯志勇,谢永宏,陈心胜,胡佳宇,曾静,李旭,潘柏含.洞庭湖湿地植物生活型与生态型.湖泊科学,2016,28(5):1095-1102. DOI:10.18307/2016.0520
HOU Zhiyong,XIE Yonghong,CHEN Xinsheng,HU Jiayu,ZENG Jing,LI Xu,PAN Baihan.Life forms and ecotypes of wetland plants at Lake Dongting wetlands. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(5):1095-1102. DOI:10.18307/2016.0520
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洞庭湖湿地植物生活型与生态型
侯志勇1, 谢永宏1, 陈心胜1, 胡佳宇1,2, 曾静1, 李旭1, 潘柏含1,2
1.中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 农业生态过程重点实验室, 洞庭湖湿地生态系统观测研究站, 长沙 410125;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
研究植物生活型和生态型可以深刻解析植物群落结构和其环境的关系,对研究植物群落的发生、发展以及演替规律都具有重要意义.通过对洞庭湖湿地植物群落物种生活型及生态型进行调查研究,结果表明:洞庭湖湿地植物主要生长型为草本植物,其次为藤本植物,木本类植物缺乏;生活型主要为一年生植物,其次为地下芽和地面芽植物,高位芽和地上芽植物最少.在不同典型群落中,高位芽和地上芽植物在不同群落中所占比重随着高程的递增而增加,且相同生活型在不同群落中所占的比重也随高程的递增而增加.植物生态型构成中,水分生态型以湿生植物为主,土壤pH值生态型以中性土植物最多,光照强度生态型以阳性植物为主,淤积生态型以非淤积植物最多.洞庭湖湿地不同高程典型植物群落生态型组成为:阳性、旱生、中生、碱性,中性、非淤积型植物主要分布于高、中程区,淤积植物主要分布于低程区;阴性、耐阴性、酸性、碱性、非淤积型植物随高程的递增而递增.在洞庭湖湿地,能同时适应洪水和泥沙淤积胁迫的生长型和生活型所占比例较高.水分是决定不同植物生态型分布的关键因子,在湿地高程区分布的物种更多,植物生态型更丰富.
关键词:  洞庭湖湿地  植物生活型  植物生态型
DOI:10.18307/2016.0520
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC09B03)和国家科技基础性工作专项(2013YF111800)联合资助.
Life forms and ecotypes of wetland plants at Lake Dongting wetlands
HOU Zhiyong1, XIE Yonghong1, CHEN Xinsheng1, HU Jiayu1,2, ZENG Jing1, LI Xu1, PAN Baihan1,2
1.Dongting Lake Station for Wetland Ecosystem Research, Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Institute of Subtropical Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changsha 410125, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
Abstract:
The relationship between plant community structure and its environment by analyzing plant life forms and plant ecotypes has important significance for the occurrence, development and succession law of plant community. An investigation was made on the species life form and ecotypes of wetland plants in Lake Dongting wetlands. Herbs are the dominant growth form, followed by lianas, but trees are scarce. Therophytes are major life forms, followed by geophytes and hemicryphytes, and phanerophtes and chamaephytes were the least in Lake Dongting wetlands. The proportion of phanerophtes and chamaephytes in different communities and the same life in different plant communities increased with the elevation. Hygrophytes is major ecotype according to water requirement. Neutral soil plant is dominant ecotype based on soil pH requirement. Heliophytes is dominant ecotype according to light intensity demand. The depositions of plants are major ecotype according to responses sediment ubrial. Heliophytes, xerophyte, mesophyte, alkaline plant, neotrophilous and burial intolerant plant distribute mainly in low-elevation sites. Shade-demanding plant, shade-enduring plant, acid plant, alkaline plant and burial intolerant plant species also increased with elevation. In Lake Dongting wetlands, the proportion of plants which can adapt to both flooding and sedimenting processes simultaneously is high. Water is the key factor determining the plant distribution of different ecotypes. Species and ecotypes were more diverse in intermediate- and high-elevation sites.
Key words:  Lake Dongting wetlands  plant life form  plant ecotype
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