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引用本文:郭坤,杨德国,彭婷,罗静波,何勇凤,柴毅.湖北省长湖浮游植物优势种生态位分析.湖泊科学,2016,28(4):825-834. DOI:10.18307/2016.0416
GUO Kun,YANG Deguo,PENG Ting,LUO Jingbo,HE Yongfeng,CHAI Yi.Ecological niche analysis of dominant species of phytoplankton in Lake Changhu, Hubei Province. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(4):825-834. DOI:10.18307/2016.0416
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湖北省长湖浮游植物优势种生态位分析
郭坤1, 杨德国2, 彭婷1, 罗静波1, 何勇凤2, 柴毅1,2
1.长江大学动物科学学院, 荆州 434025;2.中国水产科学研究院长江水产研究所农业部淡水生物多样性保护重点实验室, 武汉 430223
摘要:
于2012年4月至2013年1月对长湖浮游植物群落结构特征进行调查分析,使用Levins生态位宽度公式和Levins重叠公式测定长湖浮游植物优势种的生态位指数,分析浮游植物站点分布和环境因子的变化与生态位间的关系.结果显示:整个区域以蓝藻门和绿藻门的种类为主,优势种种类和密度随季节变化,表现出1~2个种类成为主要优势种,在丰度、优势度和生态位宽度上远大于其他优势种的特征.依据优势度指数和生态位宽度将优势种分为3类;小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)和扭曲小环藻(Cyclotella comta)作为4个季节优势种,占据更多的资源位点,有更大的生态位宽度,在竞争中处于优势.蓝藻门的两栖颤藻(Oscillatoria amphibia)在夏季成为主要优势种,其丰度远大于其他种类,但受到种间竞争及高等水生植物的抑制,没有在竞争中取得绝对优势.其他种在不同季节此消彼长,但仅在若干季节成为优势种.海子湖区周围的进出水口及马洪台区、圆心湖区的围网养殖会直接影响水体中总氮、总磷浓度,进而改变浮游植物优势种在各区域的分布,使用t检验证实了这种差异.环境因子与优势种的相关性分析显示,水温、N/P比是影响浮游植物优势种分布的重要因素.
关键词:  长湖  浮游植物  群落结构  优势种  生态位
DOI:10.18307/2016.0416
分类号:
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划“十二五”项目(2012BAD25B08-03)资助.
Ecological niche analysis of dominant species of phytoplankton in Lake Changhu, Hubei Province
GUO Kun1, YANG Deguo2, PENG Ting1, LUO Jingbo1, HE Yongfeng2, CHAI Yi1,2
1.College of Animal Science, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434025, P.R.China;2.Yangtze River Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Key Laboratory of Freshwater Biodiversity Conservation, Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430223, P.R.China
Abstract:
In order to examine the characteristics of community structure of phytoplankton in Lake Changhu, a survey started in April, 2012 and ended in January, 2013. Using Niche Breadth Index modified by Levins and Colewll and Levins Niche Overlap Index, ecological niche of dominant species of phytoplankton was determined. Relationship between the distribution of dominant species in sampling sites and associated environmental parameters and ecological niche was analyzed. Results showed that: dominant species varied with the seasons, and species belonging to Cyanophyta and Chlorophyta was the most abundant with broader niche breadth and larger biomass and dominant index than other species. Based on dominant index and niche breadth, the dominant species in the investigation could be divided into 3 classes, Chlorella vulgaris and Cyclotella comta were dominant species in all the four seasons and possessed broader distribution and wider niche breadth, and had a better usage on environmental resource. Oscillatoria amphibian, belonging to Cyanophyta, as the main dominant specie in summer, had the largest biomass in all the sampling sites. Since being restricted by interspecific competition and higher hydrophyte, it didn't get absolute advantage in completion. Other species became dominant species in seasons now and then. T-test analysis results showed that wastewater discharge from intake and outlet around Lake Haizihu and high density enclosure culture in Mahongtai area and Lake Yuanxinhu led to difference in concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus among the three areas. Correlation analysis between environmental parameters and abundance of dominant species indicated that temperature and N/P were main factors influencing the distribution of phytoplankton.
Key words:  Lake Changhu  phytoplankton  community structure  dominant species  ecological niche
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