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引用本文:张光贵,王丑明,田琪.三峡工程运行前后洞庭湖水质变化分析.湖泊科学,2016,28(4):734-742. DOI:10.18307/2016.0406
ZHANG Guanggui,WANG Chouming,TIAN Qi.Changes of water quality in Lake Dongting before and after Three Gorges Project operation. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(4):734-742. DOI:10.18307/2016.0406
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三峡工程运行前后洞庭湖水质变化分析
张光贵,王丑明,田琪
作者单位
张光贵 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000 
王丑明 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000 
田琪 湖南省洞庭湖生态环境监测中心, 岳阳 414000 
摘要:
为了解三峡工程运行前后洞庭湖水质变化,基于19962013年洞庭湖水质监测数据,采用内梅罗污染指数(IP)法对三峡工程运行前后洞庭湖水质进行评价,并对洞庭湖水质与主要污染物的时空变化特征进行分析. 结果表明, 19962013年洞庭湖IP值在1.10~2.20之间,平均值为1.63,水质属轻污染~污染,总体变化平稳,但从2010年起,洞庭湖IP值连续低于其多年平均值,总体水质趋好;主要污染物为总磷和总氮,总磷浓度变化平稳,总氮浓度则呈显著上升趋势. 与三峡工程运行前相比,三峡工程运行后洞庭湖全年和汛期总氮浓度以及南洞庭湖IP值和总氮浓度显著升高,南洞庭湖水质显著恶化. 洞庭湖IP值和总磷浓度的水期分布格局均由三峡工程运行前的汛期> 非汛期变化为三峡工程运行后的非汛期> 汛期,其空间分布格局均由三峡工程运行前的西洞庭湖> 东洞庭湖> 南洞庭湖变化为三峡工程运行后的西洞庭湖> 南洞庭湖> 东洞庭湖;从2010年起,洞庭湖IP值的空间分布格局发生新的变化,其大小顺序变化为东洞庭湖> 南洞庭湖> 西洞庭湖. 三峡工程运行前后洞庭湖IP值与总磷浓度的时空变化与其水沙条件变化有关,总氮浓度受三峡工程运行影响较小,主要受湘江、资水、沅江和澧水“四水”流域氮污染的影响.
关键词:  三峡工程  水质  内梅罗污染指数  时空变化  洞庭湖
DOI:10.18307/2016.0406
分类号:
基金项目:
Changes of water quality in Lake Dongting before and after Three Gorges Project operation
ZHANG Guanggui,WANG Chouming,TIAN Qi
Abstract:
To understand the changes of water quality in Lake Dongting before and after Three Gorges Project operation, the water quality in Lake Dongting was evaluated based on the water quality monitoring data of Lake Dongting from 1996 to 2013 by using Nemerow pollution index method, and the spatial and temporal variation characteristics of water quality and main pollutants in Lake Dongting were analyzed. The results showed that the IP values of Lake Dongting ranged from 1.10 to 2.20, with an average of 1.63 from 1996 to 2013, the water pollution level was between light pollution and pollution, the water quality did not change significantly generally, but since 2010, the IP values of Lake Dongting had been continuously under the average for many years, and water quality became better. Total phosphorus and total nitrogen were the major pollutants in the lake, the concentration of total phosphorus did not change significantly, but the concentration of total nitrogen showed a significant upward trend. Comparing with the period before Three Gorges Project operation, the concentration of total nitrogen in Lake Dongting and the IP values and the concentration of total nitrogen in southern Lake Dongting increased significantly after Three Gorges Project operation, the water quality in southern Lake Dongting deteriorated significantly. The order of IP values and the concentration of total phosphorus in different water phases changed from flood season> non-flood season to non-flood season> flood season, and in spatial distribution changed from western Lake Dongting> eastern Lake Dongting> southern Lake Dongting to western Lake Dongting> southern Lake Dongting> eastern Lake Dongting, respectively before and after the Three Gorges Project operation. Since 2010, the ranking order of IP values had changed in spatial as eastern Lake Dongting> southern Lake Dongting> western Lake Dongting. The spatial and temporal changes of IP value and the concentration of total phosphorus associated with changes of flow and sediment conditions in Lake Dongting before and after Three Gorges Project operation, the concentration of total nitrogen was less affected by the Three Gorges Project operation, mainly by nitrogen pollution of Xiangjiang River, Zishui River and so on in the four river basin.
Key words:  Three Gorges Project  water quality  Nemerow pollution index  spatial and temporal variation  Lake Dongting
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