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引用本文:毛志刚,谷孝鸿,曾庆飞.呼伦湖鱼类群落结构及其渔业资源变化.湖泊科学,2016,28(2):387-394. DOI:10.18307/2016.0219
MAO Zhigang,GU Xiaohong,ZENG Qingfei.The structure of fish community and changes of fishery resources in Lake Hulun. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(2):387-394. DOI:10.18307/2016.0219
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呼伦湖鱼类群落结构及其渔业资源变化
毛志刚, 谷孝鸿, 曾庆飞
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
根据2014-2015年在呼伦湖进行的鱼类资源拖网调查,结合历年渔业捕捞资料,分析该水域的鱼类群落结构及渔业资源发展趋势.结果表明:本次调查共采获鱼类21种,隶属4目6科21属,其中鲤形目种类最多,占总数的81.0%;群落优势种为贝氏(Hemiculter bleekeri)、红鳍原鲌(Cultrichthys erythropterus)、鲤(Cyprinus carpio)、银鲫(Carassius auratus gibelio)和瓦氏雅罗鱼(Leuciscus waleckii),鱼类群落的丰富度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和均匀度指数均偏低.东部、西部湖区间的鱼类群落组成存在一定差异,其中西部湖区的鱼类物种数量较少,但大中型鱼类比例及生物多样性较高.与历史资料相比,呼伦湖鱼类的物种数量下降,优势种组成发生较大变化,鱼类个体小型化趋势明显,而捕捞强度过大、湖泊富营养化加剧及气候水文条件变化是导致呼伦湖渔业资源衰退的主要因素.
关键词:  鱼类种类组成  生态类型  优势种  生物多样性  渔业资源小型化  呼伦湖
DOI:10.18307/2016.0219
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基金项目:
The structure of fish community and changes of fishery resources in Lake Hulun
MAO Zhigang, GU Xiaohong, ZENG Qingfei
State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
Based on the historical data of fish catches and bottom trawl surveys on fish assemblage from 2014 to 2015 in Lake Hulun, the characteristics of fish community structure and dynamic variation of fishery resources were analyzed.The results showed that only 21 species (belonging to 21 genera, 6 families and 4 orders) were collected in Lake Hulun and Cypriniformes had the largest species number,accounting for 81.0% of the total species captured.The dominant species were Hemiculter bleekeri, Cultrichthys erythropterus, Cyprinus carpio, Carassius auratus gibelio and Leuciscus waleckii, and the Margalef richness index, Shannon-Wiener index and Pielou evenness index were low in Lake Hulun.In addition, the percentage of large fishes and the diversity indexes were found higher in the western lake region than those in the eastern lake region, whereas the number of fish species showed the reverse trend. Compared with historical data, we found that the composition of fish species and the dominant species had changed and the miniaturized tendency of fish resources was more obvious.Overfishing,lake eutrophication and changes of climatic and hydrological conditions are potential underlying reasons for observed shifts in the fish assemblage.
Key words:  Composition of fish species  ecological guilds  dominant species  biodiversity  miniaturization of fish resources  Lake Hulun
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