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引用本文:向鹏,刘良国,王冬,曾平文,邓玲玲,杨春英,杨品红.湖南沅水五强溪水库鱼类资源现状及其历史变化.湖泊科学,2016,28(2):379-386. DOI:10.18307/2016.0218
XIANG Peng,LIU Liangguo,WANG Dong,ZENG Pingwen,DENG Lingling,YANG Chunying,YANG Pinhong.Status and historical changes of fish resources of Wuqiangxi Reservoir on Yuanshui River in Hunan Province. J. Lake Sci.2016,28(2):379-386. DOI:10.18307/2016.0218
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湖南沅水五强溪水库鱼类资源现状及其历史变化
向鹏, 刘良国, 王冬, 曾平文, 邓玲玲, 杨春英, 杨品红
湖南文理学院生命科学学院, 湖南省水产高效健康生产协同创新中心, 动物学湖南省高校重点实验室, 常德 415000
摘要:
水电工程对鱼类生境和资源多样性具有重大的影响.于2012年4月-2014年3月,对湖南省沅水五强溪水库鱼类资源进行调查,以了解五强溪水库建成20年后鱼类资源的现状及多样性变化.结果表明,在五强溪水库共采集鉴定鱼类86种(包括引进种5种),隶属7目18科58属.种类组成以鲤形目种类数最多,占总种类数的66.28%.在五强溪水库库尾、库区和坝下江段,鱼类物种数分别为54、67和52,其中,库区与坝下江段之间鱼类群落为中等相似,库区与库尾、库尾与坝下江段之间鱼类群落为中等不相似.在生态类型上,水库鱼类呈现多样化特征,以湖泊定居性、杂食性和底栖性鱼类居多,分别占总种类数的68.60%、55.81%和41.86%.各江段渔获物组成存在一定差异,但黄颡鱼(Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)、鲤(Cyprinuscarpio)、鲫(Carassius auratus)、蒙古鲌(Culter mongolicus)等在各江段均占有较高比例.渔获物产量和规格以库区较高,库尾、坝下江段偏低,鱼类小型化现象明显.与五强溪水库建成前相比,本次调查水库库区江段鱼类种类减少46种,降幅为40.71%,一些常见经济鱼类如鳤(Ochetobius elongatus)、白甲鱼(Onychostoma sima)、瓣结鱼(Brevifilis brevifilis)、长吻鮠(Leiocassis longirostris)等没有发现.
关键词:  沅水  五强溪水库  鱼类资源  生态类型  渔获物
DOI:10.18307/2016.0218
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31572619)和湖南省高校创新平台基金项目(13K103)联合资助.
Status and historical changes of fish resources of Wuqiangxi Reservoir on Yuanshui River in Hunan Province
XIANG Peng, LIU Liangguo, WANG Dong, ZENG Pingwen, DENG Lingling, YANG Chunying, YANG Pinhong
Key Laboratory of Zoology in Hunan Higher Education, Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of Fisheries in Hunan Province, College of Life Science, Hunan University of Arts and Science, Changde 415000, P. R. China
Abstract:
Hydropower development had a significant effect on the fish habitat and their biological diversity.To evaluating the current status and changes of fishery resource of Wuqiangxi Reservoir 20 years after the completion of a hydroelectric dam, the fish resources were investigated during April of 2012 to March of 2014. Results showed that a total of 86 fish species (including 5 introduced) were collected, belonging to 7 orders, 18 family, 58 genera. Cypriniformes were dominant, accounting for 66.28% of the total species. There were 54, 67 and 52 fish species found in the end,reservoir and downstream reach of Wuqiangxi Reservoir, respectively. The jaccard similarity coefficient showed that the fish communities of the reservoir area were highly similar to those at the dam sector, and moderately dissimilar to those at the reservoir tail.It was also the same moderately dissimilar between the reservoir tail and the dam sector. With regard to ecological type,fish communities in the Wuqiangxi Reservoir showed diversification types, the sedentary, omnivore and demersa species were dominant, accounting for 68.60%, 55.81% and 41.86% of the total species, respectively. Despite the species of the catches in various sections were different, the species number such as Pelteobagrus fulvidraco, Carassius auratus, Cyprinuscarpio and Culter mongolicus occupied a higher proportion in each section. The yield and dimension of the reservoir area were higher than those of the other two sections, and the catches showed miniaturization significantly. We compared the fish species number of the reservoir area between the pre-and post-dam periods,the fish species reduced 46 species and dropped 40.71%. Some common economic fishes such as Ochetobius elongatus, Onychostoma sima, Brevifilis brevifilis and Leiocassis longirostris were not found.
Key words:  Yuanshui River  Wuqiangxi Reservoir  fish resources  ecological type  fish catches
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