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卢信,刘成,尹洪斌,范成新.生源性湖泛水体主要含硫致臭物及其产生机制.湖泊科学,2015,27(4):583-590. DOI:10.18307/2015.0404
LU Xin,LIU Cheng,YIN Hongbin,FAN Chengxin.The main sulfur-containing odorous compounds and their forming mechanisms in waters during bio-induced black bloom. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(4):583-590. DOI:10.18307/2015.0404
生源性湖泛水体主要含硫致臭物及其产生机制
The main sulfur-containing odorous compounds and their forming mechanisms in waters during bio-induced black bloom
投稿时间:2015-01-14  修订日期:2015-04-13
DOI:10.18307/2015.0404
中文关键词: 湖泛  含硫氨基酸  蛋氨酸  挥发性硫化物  脱氨基作用  太湖  贡湖湾
Keywords: Black bloom  sulfur-containing amino acids  methionine  volatile sulfur compounds  deamination  Lake Taihu  Gonghu Bay
基金项目:中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”战略发展规划项目(NIGLAS2012135008)和江苏省太湖水污染治理专项(TH2013214)联合资助.
作者单位E-mail
卢信 江苏省农业科学院, 南京 210014;中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008  
刘成 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;中国科学院大学, 北京 100049  
尹洪斌 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008  
范成新 中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008 cxfan@niglas.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      由水生生物残体诱发的湖泛发生过程中水体高浓度的含硫致臭物质对水生态安全以及人类健康造成严重危害,这些致臭物质的来源途径及其产生机制至今尚无详细报道.通过使用藻类、浮游动物、鱼类、底栖动物以及水生植物等多种生物残体进行了模拟实验,结果发现各类生物残体均能导致湖泛的发生,其中藻类残体中含有的大量含硫氨基酸导致水体挥发性有机硫化物浓度升高尤为突出.使用蛋氨酸作为前驱物质进行模拟实验发现,影响蛋氨酸降解的非生物因素主要为光照和厌氧条件,其中光照的影响更大.对蛋氨酸降解率与铵态氮浓度变化的关系进行研究后发现,无论有无生物作用二者均有显著的相关性,表明蛋氨酸降解的第一步应为发生脱氨基作用.对α-羟丁酸、α-酮丁酸和4-甲硫基-2-氧代丁酸等中间产物在体系中的变化进行研究后发现,4-甲硫基-2-氧代丁酸在体系中很难积累,而α-羟丁酸和α-酮丁酸则有较明显的累积过程,说明脱甲硫基作用可能在脱氨基作用后很短时间内发生,或二者同时发生,由此产生甲硫醇,甲硫醇再通过各种途径转化为二甲基硫醚、二甲基二硫醚、二甲基三硫醚以及硫化氢等.
Abstract:
      High levels of sulfur-containing odorous compounds can always be detected in waters during black bloom induced by aquatic debris. These contaminants are great threatens to water ecological security and human health. However, detailed reports focused on the sources and forming mechanisms of these odorous compounds were seldom seen. In this study, various aquatic debris like algae, zooplankton, fishes, benthic fauna and aquatic plants were used to simulate the occurrence of black bloom. Results showed that black bloom can be triggered by all of these aquatic debris. The highest levels of volatile organic sulfur compounds were detected in the added-algae treatments because of the high content of sulfur-containing amino acids in algae. Methionine was used as precursor of VOSCs during the experiment. Illumination and anaerobic conditions, especially illumination, were found to be more favorable for the degradation of methionine. Significant correlations were found between the degradation rate of methionine and the ammonium nitrogen levels, demonstrating that the first step of methionine degradation was deamination. The variations of several intermediate products (α-hydroxybutyric acid, α-oxobutyric acid and 4-methylthio-2-oxobutyric acid (KMBA)) in the degradation system were studied. The accumulation of KMBA was quite low compared to that of α-hydroxybutyric acid and α-oxobutyric acid. These results demonstrated that the demethylthio reaction happened with a short period of time after deamination. Or maybe these two reactions happened at the same time. Methanethiol was generated during this period and then transformed to dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide and H2S through a variety of ways.
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