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刘美萍,哈斯,春喜.近50年来内蒙古查干淖尔湖水量变化及其成因分析.湖泊科学,2015,27(1):141-149. DOI:10.18307/2015.0117
LIU Meiping,HASI Eerdun,CHUN Xi.Variation and causation of Lake Qehan, Inner Mongolia over the recent 50 years. J. Lake Sci.2015,27(1):141-149. DOI:10.18307/2015.0117
近50年来内蒙古查干淖尔湖水量变化及其成因分析
Variation and causation of Lake Qehan, Inner Mongolia over the recent 50 years
投稿时间:2014-02-21  修订日期:2014-09-11
DOI:10.18307/2015.0117
中文关键词: 查干淖尔湖  湖泊波动  气候变化  人类活动
Keywords: Lake Qehan  lake variation  climate change  human activities
基金项目:国家"十二五"科技支撑项目(2012BAD16B02)和国家自然科学基金项目(41171002)联合资助
作者单位E-mail
刘美萍 北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875  
哈斯 北京师范大学资源学院, 北京 100875 hasi@bnu.edu.cn 
春喜 内蒙古师范大学地理科学学院, 呼和浩特 010022;内蒙古师范大学蒙古高原环境与全球变化实验室, 呼和浩特 010022  
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中文摘要:
      内蒙古查干淖尔湖是位于季风边缘区干旱与半干旱过渡带的封闭湖泊,对气候变化响应极为敏感.利用1958-2010年的查干淖尔湖21期遥感影像以及湖泊流域1955-2010年的3个气象站点和1个水文站点的气温、降水、蒸发和径流等数据,分析查干淖尔湖近50余年的湖泊水量、面积/水位波动及其原因.结果表明,近50年来在区域气候暖干化的背景下,查干淖尔湖不断萎缩,流域生态环境退化.1958-2010年湖泊容积以2×106m3/a的速度锐减66.9%(从124.1×106m3降到41.1×106m3),湖泊面积缩小73.3%(从105.3km2降到28.1km2),平均缩减速度为1.8km2/a;流域年均气温上升了2.5℃,年降水量下降了36.6mm.湖泊水量与流域气温和蒸发量显著负相关.查干淖尔湖分为东西两部分,中间由天然堤坝相连,东湖在水闸的人为控制下水位波动范围不超过1m.西湖水位波动则相对剧烈,湖面下降7.6 m,于2002年彻底干涸,湖盆裸露,已成为盐尘暴、沙尘暴源地.
Abstract:
      Lake Qehan, an inland closed lake located in the arid and semi-arid area and the marginal belt of southeast monsoon in Inner Mongolia, is very sensitive to climatic change,but little work has been conducted in this lake. This study aimed to investigate the lake volume, area and level variation and identify the causes for the lake fluctuation during the past 50 years, based on 19 MSS/TM/ETM+ images and two aerial photographs from 1958 to 2010 and the meteorological and hydrological data of three representative meteorological stations and one hydrological station around the lake basin from 1955 to 2010. The results showed that Lake Qehan has experienced severe shrink and environmental depravation over the recent 50 years, and human activities was not the main factors of lake shrunk,but the increasingly warm and dry climate was the principal cause of the reduced lake area and volume. The mean annual temperature increased 2.5℃ and the annual precipitation declined about 36.6 mm during 1955-2010. While the lake volume decreased 66.9% (from 124.1×106m3 to 41.1×106m3), by an average reduction rate of 2×106m3/a, the lake area reduced from 105.3 km2in 1958 to 28.1 km2 in 2010 by an average reduction rate of 1.8 km2/a. The variation of lake volume was highly negatively correlated to temperature and evaporation, the correlation coefficients were -0.689 and -0.546,respectively. Lake Qehan has two parts, the west one and the east one, there was a significant lake-level decline in west lake by 7.6 m(from 1016.6m to 1009 m a.s.l.), and it has dried up in 2002, and exposed extensive expanses of former lakebed and has created salty surface, which lead to saline dust storms.The ecological environment of the study area was getting much worse then. While under the control of the water gate, there was a relatively slight lake-level fluctuation in the east lake, just about 1m.
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