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引用本文:姚鑫,杨桂山,万荣荣,王晓龙.水位变化对河流、湖泊湿地植被的影响.湖泊科学,2014,26(6):813-821. DOI:10.18307/2014.0601
YAO Xin,YANG Guishan,WAN Rongrong,WANG Xiaolong.Impact of water level change on wetland vegetation of rivers and lakes. J. Lake Sci.2014,26(6):813-821. DOI:10.18307/2014.0601
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水位变化对河流、湖泊湿地植被的影响
姚鑫1, 杨桂山2, 万荣荣2, 王晓龙2
1.南京信息工程大学遥感学院, 南京 210044;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
水位是湿地生态水文过程的关键因素之一,其改变将影响湿地植被覆盖度和物种组成,最终产生群落演替.从水位梯度,水位波动和人工控湖、控河工程3方面论述水位变化对湿地植被的影响:由于对水位选择的不同及彼此竞争力的差异,湿地植物种沿水位具有梯度分布现象,同时形态可塑性能对其分布范围产生一定影响;水位波动的频率和淹没持续时间对于植被演替具有基础性的作用,水位波动幅度的影响则相对较小,周期性波动能维持以草本植物为主的湿地植被的物种多样性和稳定性,非周期性波动以洪水、干旱为主,易促进湿地植被向固定的水生或陆生方向演替;人工控湖、控河的影响在机理上并无特殊之处,但保证物种多样性和生态系统稳定性的各种缓解措施具有较高的参考价值.基于机理的量化模型,自然、人为因素驱动下水位变化对湿地植被影响的差别研究,模拟水位波动实验以及人工控湖、控河工程的跟踪观测将是今后该领域研究的热点.
关键词:  水位  湿地植被  物种多样性  人工控湖、控河  水位调控
DOI:10.18307/2014.0601
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(41301035)和国家重点基础研究发展计划"973"项目(2012CB417006)联合资助
Impact of water level change on wetland vegetation of rivers and lakes
YAO Xin1, YANG Guishan2, WAN Rongrong2, WANG Xiaolong2
1.Department of Remote Sensing, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, P.R.China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P.R.China
Abstract:
Water level is one of the key factors of the eco-hydrological process in wetlands. The change of water level often results in variations in wetland vegetation coverage and species composition, and leads to community succession. This article summarized the impact of water level on wetland vegetation in three different aspects: water level gradient, water level fluctuations and artificial lake/river control projects. The results showed that: 1) Wetland species exhibited grade distribution along water level gradient mainly due to their distinct responses to water level and their different competitiveness. Meanwhile, morphological plasticity influenced the distribution range of individual species;2) The rate and duration of water level fluctuations, rather than depth, had important influence on vegetation succession;periodic water level fluctuations maintained the species diversity and ecological stability, however, a periodic water level fluctuations, mainly the flood and drought, were likely to cause vegetation succession from wetland ecosystems to terrestrial or aquatic ecosystems;3) Artificial lake/river control projects had the same impact with water level fluctuations in theory, however, the matching mitigation strategies provide valuable references for maintaining ecological diversity and stability. The potential aspects to be attached importance in the future of the research are as follows: quantitative models based on mechanisms, differentiating impacts caused by anthropogenic and natural driving factors, simulating the water level fluctuations in laboratories and the tracking attention on the long-term impact of artificial lake/river control projects.
Key words:  Water level  wetland vegetation  species diversity  artificial lake/river control  water level management
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