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引用本文:杜臣昌,刘恩峰,羊向东,吴艳宏,薛滨.巢湖沉积物重金属富集特征与人为污染评价.湖泊科学,2012,24(1):59-66. DOI:10.18307/2012.0108
DU Chenchang,LIU Enfeng,YANG Xiangdong,WU Yanhong,XUE Bin.Characteristics of enrichment and evaluation of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals in the sediments of Lake Chaohu. J. Lake Sci.2012,24(1):59-66. DOI:10.18307/2012.0108
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巢湖沉积物重金属富集特征与人为污染评价
杜臣昌1,2, 刘恩峰1, 羊向东1, 吴艳宏3, 薛滨1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049;3.中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 成都 610041
摘要:
本文分析了巢湖主要入湖河流河口区表层沉积物及西部湖心区沉积岩芯中Al、Fe、Ni、Cr、Cu、Zn、Pb、Li、V等金属元素变化特征,采用地球化学方法对金属元素变化的"粒度效应"进行矫正,并以Li、V为参照元素对矫正结果进行检验;参考历史沉积物,对河口区及西部湖心区沉积物重金属人为污染特征进行分析;结合沉积岩芯210Pb年代结果,估算西部湖心区近150a来Ni、Cr、Cu、Zn、Pb等重金属元素的人为污染贡献量.结果表明,河口表层沉积物重金属污染具有显著的空间差异,南淝河河口重金属人为污染最重,其中Ni、Cr、Cu、Zn、Pb的人为污染贡献量分别为12.2、32.2、25.3、479.9和76.0 mg/kg,分别占总含量的35%、37%、64%、92%和77%;其次是柘皋河河口,主要重金属污染元素为Cu、Zn和Pb,人为污染贡献量达57.6、57.0和19.5 mg/kg,分别占总含量的73%、47%和36%;而派河、白石山河、杭埠河等河口表层沉积物中重金属元素人为污染程度较弱.巢湖西部湖心区主要污染元素为Cu、Zn、Pb,人为污染开始于1950s,1980年以来其人为污染贡献量显著增加,平均为16.2、245.6、47.8 mg/(m2·a),分别占各元素沉积通量的23%、61%和37%;Ni人为污染开始于1980s初期,人为污染贡献量平均为12.6 mg/(m2·a),占其沉积通量的13%左右;Cr基本未受人为污染影响.西部湖心区沉积岩芯及南淝河河口表层沉积物中重金属污染程度均表现为Zn > Pb > Cu,而且南淝河河口沉积物重金属污染程度显著高于西部湖心区.结合主要入湖河流径流量与河口沉积物重金属污染特征,认为巢湖西部湖心区重金属污染主要通过南淝河输入,来自合肥等城市的废水是主要的污染源.
关键词:  重金属  人为污染  来源  沉积物  巢湖
DOI:10.18307/2012.0108
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项项目(2008ZX07103-003);国家自然科学基金项目(41071320、4097221)联合资助
Characteristics of enrichment and evaluation of anthropogenic pollution of heavy metals in the sediments of Lake Chaohu
DU Chenchang1,2, LIU Enfeng1, YANG Xiangdong1, WU Yanhong3, XUE Bin1
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, P. R. China
Abstract:
Concentrations of Al, Fe, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Li and V in core sediments from the central part of western Lake Chaohu and surface sediments from the mouths of six major rivers entering the lake were determined. Anthropogenic pollution characteristics of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb were studied by referring to the historical background levels after the geochemical normalization for the compensation of "grain size effect". Accuracy of the geochemical normalization was evaluated referring to Li and V. The heavy metals show significant spatial differences in the concentrations and pollution levels. The sediments from Nanfei River mouth are of serious pollution for Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb. Anthropogenic proportions of the five heavy metals are up to 12.2, 32.2, 25.3, 479.9 and 76.0 mg/kg, respectively, which account for 35%, 37%, 64%, 92% and 77% of their total concentrations. It also shows clearly pollution of Cu, Pb and Zn in the sediments of Zhegao River mouth, with anthropogenic contributions of 57.6, 57.0 and 19.5 mg/kg, accounting for 73%, 47% and 36% of their total concentrations, respectively. No obvious pollution by Cr, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn has been observed in the mouths of Pai River, Baishishan River and Hangbu River. Cu, Zn and Pb are the typical heavy metals caused by the anthropogenic pollution in the center of western Lake Chaohu. Pollution of Cu, Zn and Pb begun in 1950s, and has reached higher levels since 1980 when the anthropogenic proportions were 16.2, 245.6 and 47.8 mg/(m2·a) on average, accounting for 23%, 61% and 37% of their total sedimentation flux, respectively. Anthropogenic pollution of Ni begun in early 1980s, which was 12.6 mg/(m2·a) on average, accounting for 13% of the total sedimentation flux. No obvious pollution could be observed for Cr in the center of western Lake Chaohu. Similar ranks of heavy metals pollution have been revealed in the sediments from Nanfei River mouth and center of western Lake Chaohu, which was Zn > Pb > Cu. More serious heavy metals pollution have been found in Nanfei River than that in the central part of western Lake Chaohu, which, we speculate, should be attributed to the input of Nanfei River which carries the urban swage of Hefei city (the largest urban centre in the region) and other cities.
Key words:  Heavy metals  anthropogenic pollution  source  sediment  Lake Chaohu
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