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引用本文:王庆,陈吉余.洪泽湖和淮河入洪泽湖河口的形成与演化.湖泊科学,1999,11(3):237-244. DOI:10.18307/1999.0308
WANG Qing,CHEN Ji-yu.Formation and Evolution of Hongze Lake and the Huaihe River Mouth along the Lake. J. Lake Sci.1999,11(3):237-244. DOI:10.18307/1999.0308
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洪泽湖和淮河入洪泽湖河口的形成与演化
王庆, 陈吉余
华东师范大学河口海岸动力地貌与动力沉积综合国家重点实验室, 上海 200062
摘要:
根据历史文献资料和前人研究成果,对洪泽湖和淮河入洪泽湖河口及三角洲的形成与演化进行了探讨结果表明,洪泽湖是明、清两代治黄、保运工程的产物和组成部分,现代洪泽湖主要形成于17世纪末的靳辅治水时期,其形成后百余年中湖水位变化总趋势是不断上升,同时具有大幅度的年内和年际变化,湖水位的大幅度年内和年际变化在湖以上河道产生大范围回水区,其上界又随水位的上升而不断上溯,洪泽湖形成以后,由于湖水位不断升高,湖泊容积不断扩大,其湖流曾发生过显著变化,吞吐流明显减弱乃至消失,淮河洪泽湖三角洲是1850s以后,在基本稳定的动力条件下形成的.受其影响河口演化模式为洲滩形成、湖泊河化、河道分汊.
关键词:  洪泽湖  入湖河口  水位  湖流
DOI:10.18307/1999.0308
分类号:
基金项目:教育部重大科技项目资助
Formation and Evolution of Hongze Lake and the Huaihe River Mouth along the Lake
WANG Qing, CHEN Ji-yu
State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research at ECNU, Shanghai 200062
Abstract:
This paper, based on the historical literature and field observations, outlines the formation and evolution of Hongze Lake and the Huaihe River mouth along the lake.Hongze Lake was the result and component part of the engineering of regulating the Yellow River and protecting the Grand Canal.The present Hongze Lake mainly formed at the end of the 17th century, when Jin Fu harnessed the Yellow River and the Grand Canal by lifting the water level of the Huaihe river.After the lake formed, its level began lo rise continually at an average rate of about 4,0cm.a 1 for more than 100 years. At the same time, the lake level changed with an annual range of 4.lm, which resulted in strong backward flow in the upstream, whose uplimit moved backward gradually. Accompanying the lake-level rising and lake-volume increasing, the lake current changed evidently, especially the Hongze Lake influent-effluent current became weaker and weaker from the 18th century. Although there were absolute proofs about the sub-delta and mouth sand bar in the 18th century, the present Huaihe River delta along Hongze Lake was formed since the 1850s AD under the stable lake level and current. In 1128-1851 AD, the lower Yellow River captured the Huaihe River and a great quantity of sand was accumulated in the middle Huaihe drainage, some of which was carried into the Huaihe River channel afterwards, and became the Huaihe delta, s material base. The river counter-S-shaped valley from Fushan down to the lake has contributed to the river current wearing and sand accumulating. The evolutional model of the estuary may be summarized as follows:(1) formation of shoals;(2) fluvialization of the lake; and (3) anastomosing of the channel.
Key words:  Hongze Lake  delta  lake level  lake current  Huaihe River
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