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引用本文:秦伯强.近百年来亚洲中部内陆湖泊演变及其原因分析.湖泊科学,1999,11(1):11-19. DOI:10.18307/1999.0102
QIN Bo-qiang.A Preliminary Investigation of Lake Evolution in 20-century in Inland Mainland Asia with Relation to the Global Warming. J. Lake Sci.1999,11(1):11-19. DOI:10.18307/1999.0102
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近百年来亚洲中部内陆湖泊演变及其原因分析
秦伯强
中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008
摘要:
本文对亚洲中部地区内陆湖泊近百年来的变化及其变化的原因, 特别是气候因素进行了考察与分析。位于我国内蒙古东部及蒙古高原北部的湖泊, 近百年来其变化以水位上涨与面积扩张为主, 产生这种湖泊水位上升的原因与该地区降水增加有关.此外, 气温升高使冻土与地下冰融化, 亦间接地增加了径流产出率, 导致河川径流增加.该地区降水的增加同整个北半球高纬度地区降水增加相一致.位于亚洲内陆区西部的里海.自70年代末以来出现水位上升, 亦与其集水区域内气候转湿润有关;位于中亚山区及平原的湖泊均以下降为主要特征.导致湖泊水位下降的原因中, 有的是由于人类活动影响.有的是气候干旱所致, 或二者兼而有之.中亚地区气温有升高的趋势, 但降水减少, 反过来又促使人类引水拦蓄等活动加剧.造成径流进一步减少, 加速湖泊水位下降与面积收缩.
关键词:  亚洲中部  内陆湖泊  演变  气候变化  人类活动影响
DOI:10.18307/1999.0102
分类号:
基金项目:
A Preliminary Investigation of Lake Evolution in 20-century in Inland Mainland Asia with Relation to the Global Warming
QIN Bo-qiang
Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, CAS, Nanjing 210008
Abstract:
This paper summarizes lake changes in the arid or semi-arid inland mainland Asia since the beginning of 20-century, and further investigates the possible causing, especially the effects of climatic change.In the northern Mongolia and eastern Inner Mongolia, the lakes show a general increase in water stand, which is caused by the increase in precipitation.Meanwhile, the temperature rising is favourable for melting the frost underground water and augmenting the soil tension water and runoff.In the western Central Asia, the water level of Caspian Sea has turned to rise since 1978, which is also associated with the increase in moisture condition in the catchment.In the mountainous central Asia, most lakes show a general decrease in water level.These lake level drop are caused either by the trend of dry and warm condition, or by the human activities, or by both.The rainfall record indicates a slightly reduction of rainfall, particularly the reduction of winter rainfall, which presumably related to the increase in winter temperature resulted in the shift of westerlies in winter time.Decrease in precipitation result in more water to be channeled and irrigated, therefore, the lake shrinkages will be speeded up.
Key words:  Inland mainland Asia  lake evolution  climate change  human activities
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