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引用本文:唐文家,何德奎.青海省外来鱼类调查(2001—2014年).湖泊科学,2015,27(3):502-510. DOI:10.18307/2015.0318
TANG Wenjia,HE Dekui.Investigation on alien fishes in Qinghai Province, China(2001-2014). J. Lake Sci.2015,27(3):502-510. DOI:10.18307/2015.0318
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青海省外来鱼类调查(2001—2014年)
唐文家1, 何德奎2
1.青海省生态环境遥感监测中心, 西宁 810000;2.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072
摘要:
2001-2014年对青海省主要水体中外来鱼类组成、分布和生态习性进行了系统调查.野外调查采集到外来鱼类30种,隶属6目12科25属,已建群外来鱼类16种.其中,黄河水系拥有的外来鱼类最多,共26种;长江上游有4种,为该河段首次记录;可鲁克湖12种,是内陆水体中外来鱼类最多的水域.结合历史文献记录,截至2013年,全省记录外来鱼类7目13科31属36种,已远超土著鱼类物种数(50种和亚种)的一半.调查分析发现外来鱼类呈现数量持续增多、分布范围向高海拔扩张的趋势.已建群外来鱼类主要是分布于我国东部平原地区的广布型物种.虹鳟(Oncorhynchus myskiss)是代表性外来种,现已在黄河上游干流部分河段形成自然繁殖群体,其食物组成包括水生无脊椎动物和高原鳅等土著鱼类.建立水产种质资源保护区和开展外来鱼类影响研究是防控高原地区外来鱼类的必要措施.
关键词:  外来鱼类  土著鱼类  分布  虹鳟
DOI:10.18307/2015.0318
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31201729)资助.
Investigation on alien fishes in Qinghai Province, China(2001-2014)
TANG Wenjia1, HE Dekui2
1.Qinghai Ecosystem Remote Sensing Monitoring Center, Xining 810000, P.R.China;2.Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P.R.China
Abstract:
We investigated the composition, distribution and ecological habits of alien fishes in major drainages in Qinghai Province during the period of 2001-2014.30 alien species, belonging to 6 orders, 12 families and 25 genera, were found and collected in this survey.In total, 36 alien fishes were recorded in Qinghai Province, combined with published literatures.Among the species, 16 successfully established populations in natural water bodies, 26 were found in the upper reaches of the Yellow River where they have exceeded native fishes.4 species were first recorded in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River.12 species, representative of the most alien fishes among endorheic drainages, were found in Lake Keluk, an inland lake in Qaidam basin.The survey found that the numbers of alien fishes have shown continued increases, and distributions have been expanded to higher elevation drainage areas.Most of the established exotic fishes were introduced from the eastern plain of China.The steelhead, Oncorhynchus myskiss, a representative of exotic species from foreign countries, has established and naturalized in the upper reaches of the Yellow River.The food of steelhead was consisted of aquatic invertebrates and indigenous fish such as genus Triplophysa.Our survey suggested that the establishment of ecologically protected areas is necessary to control and eliminate alien fishes in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
Key words:  Alien fishes  indigenous native  distribution  Oncorhynchus myskiss
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