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引用本文:王佳成,廖传松,连玉喜,林小满,张闫涛,毕永红,刘家寿,叶少文.三峡水库香溪河鱼类群落结构特征及历史变化.湖泊科学,2023,35(6):2082-2091. DOI:10.18307/2023.0636
Wang Jiacheng,Liao Chuansong,Lian Yuxi,Lin Xiaoman,Zhang Yantao,Bi Yonghong,Liu Jiashou,Ye Shaowen.Characteristics and historical changes of fish community structure in Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir, China. J. Lake Sci.2023,35(6):2082-2091. DOI:10.18307/2023.0636
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三峡水库香溪河鱼类群落结构特征及历史变化
王佳成1,2, 廖传松1, 连玉喜1,3, 林小满1,2, 张闫涛1,4, 毕永红1, 刘家寿1, 叶少文1
1.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 淡水生态与生物技术国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.安庆师范大学, 安庆 246133;4.大连海洋大学, 大连 116023
摘要:
由于自然和人为因素的影响,三峡水库鱼类资源一直在发生变化,为掌握三峡水库蓄水后典型支流香溪河鱼类群落的现状及历史变化,于2020年7月-2021年4月使用多网目复合刺网和地笼对香溪河鱼类群落进行实地采样,并结合历史数据进行比较分析。研究期间共采集到鱼类55种,隶属于7目14科,鲤科鱼类种类数最多,以杂食性鱼类和湖泊定居性鱼类为主,优势种为贝氏(Hemiculter bleekeri)、短颌鲚(Coilia brachygnathus)、似鳊(Pseudobrama simoni)和翘嘴鲌(Culter alburnus),其相对重要性指数(IRI)分别为5502、3828、2567和1109。鱼类物种多样性指数在春季最高,夏季最低。刺网单位捕捞努力量渔获个体数和单位捕捞努力量渔获量在夏季最高,冬季最低。与三峡水库蓄水前相比,香溪河鱼类中长江上游特有鱼类减少4种,外来鱼类增加3种。湖泊定居性种类持续增加,喜流水性种类减少,鱼类优势种发生较大变动。2020—2021年香溪河鱼类组成与1987年的相似性指数为0.29,与2012—2013年的相似性指数为0.53,反映三峡水库蓄水前后香溪河鱼类群落结构差异明显。建议加强河流自然生境修复、保护土著鱼类并严格防控外来鱼类,以促进鱼类资源多样性恢复,维护水域生态系统稳定。
关键词:  鱼类群落  历史变化  三峡水库  香溪河  蓄水影响
DOI:10.18307/2023.0636
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(32072983,51679230)和国家重点研发计划项目(2019YFD0900603)联合资助。
Characteristics and historical changes of fish community structure in Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir, China
Wang Jiacheng1,2, Liao Chuansong1, Lian Yuxi1,3, Lin Xiaoman1,2, Zhang Yantao1,4, Bi Yonghong1, Liu Jiashou1, Ye Shaowen1
1.State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P.R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P.R. China;3.Anqing Normal University, Anqing 246133, P.R. China;4.Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, P.R. China
Abstract:
Fish resources in the Three Gorges Reservoir have been continuously changing due to both natural and anthropogenic influences. In order to understand the current status and historical changes of fish community in Xiangxi River, a typical tributary of the Three Gorges Reservoir, fish samplings were conducted in the river using multi-mesh gillnets and trap nets from July 2020 to April 2021, and the data was compared with historical data. A total of 55 fish species belonging to 7 orders and 14 families were collected during the study period, with Cyprinidae having the largest number of fish species. The fish community was dominated by omnivorous and limnicolous species, and the dominant species were Hemiculter bleekeri, Coilia brachygnathus, Pseudobrama simoni and Culter alburnus, with their respective index of relative importance (IRI) values of 5502, 3828, 2567 and 1109 respectively. The diversity index of fish community was the highest in spring and the lowest in summer. The number of individuals caught per unit fishing effort (NPUE) and the biomass caught per unit fishing effort (BPUE) by gillnets were the highest in summer and the lowest in winter. Four upper-Yangtze endemic fish species were not collected and three exotic fish species were found in Xiangxi River compared with before impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir. The number of lacustrine sedentary species tended to increase, while the number of riverine species decreased, resulting in a significant change in the dominant fish species. The similarity index of fish composition in Xiangxi River from 2020-2021AD was 0.29 compared with 1987AD, and 0.53 compared with 2012-2013AD, reflecting obvious changes in fish community structure before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir. It is suggested to strengthen the restoration of natural river habitats, protect native fish species, and strictly control alien species, so as to promote the recovery of fish diversity and maintain the stability of aquatic ecosystems.
Key words:  Fish community  historical changes  Three Gorges Reservoir  Xiangxi River  impoundment impact
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