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引用本文:金苗,吴敬禄,占水娥,Shakhimardan Shaniyazov.乌兹别克斯坦阿姆河流域水体中多环芳烃的分布、来源及风险评估.湖泊科学,2022,34(3):855-867. DOI:10.18307/2022.0312
Jin Miao,Wu Jinglu,Zhan Shuie,Shakhimardan Shaniyazov.Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters of Amu Darya Basin, Uzbekistan. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(3):855-867. DOI:10.18307/2022.0312
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乌兹别克斯坦阿姆河流域水体中多环芳烃的分布、来源及风险评估
金苗1,2, 吴敬禄1,2, 占水娥1,2, Shakhimardan Shaniyazov3
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;3.Berdakh Karakalpak State University, Nukus 230100, Uzbekistan
摘要:
为研究乌兹别克斯坦境内阿姆河地区水体中多环芳烃(PAHs)污染特征、来源并进行风险评估,采用高效液相色谱二极管阵列检测器串联荧光检测器法,对研究区域50个采样点中16种优先控制的多环芳烃进行了检测分析.结果表明,阿姆河地区水体中多环芳烃总浓度范围为3.19~779 ng/L,平均值为98.4 ng/L,中位值为40.1 ng/L,单体浓度范围为0~333 ng/L,检出浓度最高的单体为苊烯,5种单体芴、蒽、荧蒽、芘和的检出率为100%,单体苯并[b]荧蒽的检出总量最高,水样中总浓度为786 ng/L,平均值为15.7 ng/L,中值为2.79 ng/L.不同水体含中低环多环芳烃(2~4环)与高环多环芳烃(5~6环)总浓度相近,但不同采样点间浓度差异较大.浓度较高的采样点主要集中在阿姆河三角洲的城市、农业灌溉区及近咸海区域.与世界不同研究区域相比,阿姆河流域多环芳烃浓度处于中等水平.采用相对丰度法、同分异构体比值法及正定矩阵分解法相结合进行源解析,表明研究区域水体中多环芳烃多为混合来源,其中阿姆河下游河段水体多环芳烃主要来源于生物质燃烧,而阿姆河三角洲区域主要来源于生物质燃烧、石油、天燃气燃烧及汽车尾气排放.生态风险评估结果显示,研究区水体单体多环芳烃中萘、苊、菲和蒽的生态风险较低,其余单体处于中等风险等级,其中苯并[b]荧蒽的污染程度较为严重;总体上阿姆河流域ΣPAHs风险等级相对较低,但仍有12和8个点位分别处于中等风险2和高风险等级,且主要集中在阿姆河三角洲地区,需采取相应措施加以控制.
关键词:  阿姆河流域|水体|多环芳烃|风险评估
DOI:10.18307/2022.0312
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技A类专项(XDA2006030101)和国家自然科学基金项目(U1603242)联合资助.
Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters of Amu Darya Basin, Uzbekistan
Jin Miao1,2, Wu Jinglu1,2, Zhan Shuie1,2, Shakhimardan Shaniyazov3
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China;3.Berdakh Karakalpak State University, Nukus 230100, Uzbekistan
Abstract:
In order to study the pollution feature, the pollution source and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in waters of Amu Darya Basin in Uzbekistan, the concentrations of 16 priority PAHs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-FLD). The results indicated that the total PAHs concentration in the surface water of Amu Darya Basin ranged from 3.19 to 779 ng/L with an average value of 98.4 ng/L and a median value of 40.1 ng/L. The monomer concentration of PAHs ranged from 0 to 333 ng/L, the monomer PAH with the highest concentration was Acy. The five monomer PAHs of Flu, Ant, Fla, Pyr and Chr had the detection rate of 100% and the monomer BbF had the highest total amount. The total concentration of BbF was 786 ng/L with an average value of 15.7 ng/L and a median value of 2.79 ng/L. The PAHs with 2-4 rings had a similar concentration with the PAHs with 5-6 rings, while they had significant differences in each sampling site. The sampling sites with high concentrations were mainly concentrated in the cities, agricultural irrigation areas and the Aral Sea area of the Amu Darya Delta. Compared with surface waters in the world, the PAHs concentration in Amu Darya Basin was at a medium level. According to the relative abundance, molecular diagnostic ratios and positive matrix factorization analysis, the PAHs in Amu Darya Lower stream area mainly came from the biomass combustion while the PAHs in the Amu Darya Delta came from the biomass combustion pollution, combustion source and traffic pollution, affected by human activity. The results of ecological risk assessment indicated that Nap, Ace, Phe and Ant had a low ecological risk and other monomer PAHs were at the moderate risk, but BbF had a relatively high-risk level. Overall, the ΣPAHs were at the relatively low ecological risk in the study area while there were still 12 and 8 sampling sites at the moderate risk 2 and the high-risk level, appropriate control measures should be considered to prevent further pollution.
Key words:  Amu Darya Basin|water|polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)|risk assessment
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