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引用本文:陆志华,蔡梅,王元元,钱旭,潘明祥.太湖沿岸区浅层底泥重金属污染分析及生态风险评价.湖泊科学,2022,34(2):455-467. DOI:10.18307/2022.0208
Lu Zhihua,Cai Mei,Wang Yuanyuan,Qian Xu,Pan Mingxiang.Heavy metal pollution analysis and ecological risk assessment of shallow sediments in the coastal area of Lake Taihu. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(2):455-467. DOI:10.18307/2022.0208
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太湖沿岸区浅层底泥重金属污染分析及生态风险评价
陆志华, 蔡梅, 王元元, 钱旭, 潘明祥
太湖流域管理局水利发展研究中心, 上海 200434
摘要:
近年来太湖底泥重金属污染越来越受到各方关注.为了解太湖沿岸区底泥重金属污染状况,基于2018年太湖全湖污染底泥勘察项目中重金属监测数据,对梅梁湖、竺山湖、西部沿岸区、南部沿岸区、东太湖、贡湖6个太湖沿岸湖区浅层(0~30 cm深度区间)底泥中Hg、Cd、As、Pb、Cu、Zn、Cr、Ni 8种重金属元素含量进行分析,运用潜在生态风险指数法及空间插值分析方法对底泥重金属污染生态风险进行评价,并对底泥重金属来源进行初步分析.结果表明,太湖沿岸区浅层底泥中重金属分布具有明显的空间异质性,竺山湖、西部沿岸区、贡湖、梅梁湖等湖区重金属含量较高,南部沿岸区、东太湖重金属含量相对较低;各个湖区的Cd、Pb、Cu、Zn、Ni含量,竺山湖的Hg、As、Cr含量,贡湖的As、Cr含量,南部沿岸区的As含量以及梅梁湖的Cr含量均高于背景值;0~30 cm不同深度区间内底泥重金属含量越往表层相对越高.潜在生态风险指数法评价结果表明,0~30 cm深度区间内底泥重金属严重污染区域(重金属综合潜在生态风险指数RI≥300的区域)主要分布在西部沿岸区中部(茭渎港至乌溪港近岸侧)、竺山湖北部、贡湖北部(望虞河入河口附近),面积分别为104.54、10.80、6.89 km2,合计约122.23 km2;Cd和Hg是主要的重金属生态风险贡献因子、且毒性较强,西部沿岸区、贡湖主要表现为Cd污染,竺山湖主要表现为Cd、Hg复合污染,且西部沿岸区的Cd污染最为严重.重金属源分析结果表明,太湖沿岸区浅层底泥中Zn、Cu、Cr、Ni、Hg、Pb、As具有相似的来源,可能主要来自于工业污染,Cd可能主要来自于农业污染.研究结果可为太湖底泥重金属污染防治提供一定参考和基础数据支撑.
关键词:  太湖  底泥  重金属  污染特征  潜在生态风险指数  风险评价  源解析
DOI:10.18307/2022.0208
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC0407205)资助.
Heavy metal pollution analysis and ecological risk assessment of shallow sediments in the coastal area of Lake Taihu
Lu Zhihua, Cai Mei, Wang Yuanyuan, Qian Xu, Pan Mingxiang
Water Conservancy Development Research Center of Taihu Basin Authority of Ministry of Water Resources, Shanghai 200434, P. R. China
Abstract:
Lake Taihu is the third-largest lake in China, which is located at the junction of Shanghai City, Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province. Lake Taihu and Taihu Basin play a crucial role in the implementation of the national strategy of the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta region. To characterize the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in shallow sediments in the coastal area of Lake Taihu, the monitoring test data for heavy metals of 230 sediment samples at 0-10 cm depth, 159 sediment samples at 10-20 cm depth, and 115 sediment samples at 20-30 cm depth were collected which were from the investigation project of polluted sediments in Lake Taihu in the year of 2018. The contents of eight heavy metal elements (Hg, Cd, As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni) in the samples which in Meiliang Bay, Zhushan Bay, Western Coastal Area of Lake Taihu, Southern Coastal Area of Lake Taihu, East Lake Taihu and Gonghu Bay were analyzed. The potential ecological risk index method and spatial interpolation analysis method were applied to evaluate the ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in sediments, and the sources of heavy metals in sediments were preliminarily analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of heavy metals in shallow sediments had evident spatial heterogeneity. The heavy metals' contents in Zhushan Bay, Western Coastal Area of Lake Taihu, Gonghu Bay and Meiliang Bay were higher than those in the Southern Coastal Area of Lake Taihu and Eastern Lake Taihu. The contents of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in each lake area, the contents of Hg, As and Cr in Zhushan Bay, the contents of As and Cr in Gonghu Bay, the content of As in the Southern Coastal Area of Lake Taihu, the content of Cr in Meiliang Bay were higher than the background value. The heavy metals contents in sediments in different depths of 0-30 cm had a rise from its bottom to its surface. The potential ecological risk assessment results presented that the seriously polluted area of heavy metals in sediments at 0-30 cm depth which heavy metals ecological risk index RI ≥ 300 were mainly distributed in the central part of the Western Coastal Area of Lake Taihu (the nearshore side from Jiaodu River to Wuxi River), the northern part of Zhushan Bay, the northern part of Gonghu Bay. The distribution area was 104.54 km2, 10.80 m2 and 6.89 m2 respectively, with a total area of 122.23 km2. Cd and Hg were the main heavy metal ecological risk contributors with strong toxicity. The Western Coastal Area of Lake Taihu and Gonghu Bay were mainly polluted by Cd, Zhushan Bay was mainly polluted by Cd and Hg. The Cd pollution in the Western Coastal Area of Lake Taihu was the most serious. The heavy metals source analysis results demonstrated that the Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb and As in shallow sediments in the coastal area of Lake Taihu have similar sources, which may mainly come from industrial pollution. Moreover, the Cd may come from agricultural pollution. The research results can provide references and basic data supports for the prevention and control of heavy metal pollution in the sediments of Lake Taihu.
Key words:  Lake Taihu  sediments  heavy metals  pollution characteristics  potential ecological risk assessment  risk assessment  source analysis
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