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引用本文:郑鹏,蒋小明,曹亮,王俊,姜卓群.江湖阻隔背景下东部平原湖泊鱼类功能特征及多样性变化.湖泊科学,2022,34(1):151-161. DOI:10.18307/2022.0114
Zheng Peng,Jiang Xiaoming,Cao Liang,Wang Jun,Jiang Zhuoqun.Long-term changes in the functional trait composition and diversity of fish assemblages in eastern plain lakes under the regime of river-lake connectivity loss. J. Lake Sci.2022,34(1):151-161. DOI:10.18307/2022.0114
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江湖阻隔背景下东部平原湖泊鱼类功能特征及多样性变化
郑鹏1, 蒋小明1, 曹亮2, 王俊1, 姜卓群3
1.西安理工大学西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安 710048;2.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072;3.宝鸡市河务工作站, 水旱灾害防治监测中心, 宝鸡 721000
摘要:
东部平原湖泊区是我国淡水湖泊最集中的地区,分布着我国的五大淡水湖等诸多湖泊.然而,江湖阻隔对该区域湖泊的生物多样性造成严重威胁.本文选取东部平原的9个湖泊,对江湖阻隔前后鱼类功能性状(3组分类性状和6个连续性状)和功能多样性指数的变化规律开展了研究.结果表明,9个湖泊的鱼类总物种数由江湖阻隔前的140种减少为江湖阻隔后的100种,平均物种数由79.6种减少到52.1种(减少34.4%).江湖阻隔后鱼类群落的功能性状和功能多样性指数发生了显著变化,洄游性鱼类(包括河海洄游和江湖洄游)物种占比(由39.7%降至32.6%)和鱼食性物种占比(由31.1%降至25.2%)显著下降,而非洄游性物种占比(由60.3%升至67.5%)和浮游生物食性物种占比(由13.5%升至15.5%)显著上升.连续型性状中,平均营养级(由3.14降至3.10)显著下降、平均生长速率(由0.57 a-1升至0.65 a-1)显著上升.阻隔后的物种数(SR)、功能丰富度指数、功能离散度指数和功能分散指数显著低于阻隔前.本研究表明江湖阻隔后鱼类群落不仅物种丰富度下降,且功能性状趋向同质化(或单一化)发展,致使功能多样性下降.研究结果可为东部平原湖泊的渔业资源管理及湖区生态修复和保护提供重要的理论依据.
关键词:  东部平原湖泊  江湖阻隔  鱼类群落  功能性状  功能多样性指数
DOI:10.18307/2022.0114
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51709225)和陕西省自然科学基础研究计划项目(2018JQ5121)联合资助.
Long-term changes in the functional trait composition and diversity of fish assemblages in eastern plain lakes under the regime of river-lake connectivity loss
Zheng Peng1, Jiang Xiaoming1, Cao Liang2, Wang Jun1, Jiang Zhuoqun3
1.State Key Laboratory of Ecological Water Conservancy, Northwest Arid Region, Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an 710048, P. R. China;2.Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;3.Monitoring Center of Flood and Drought Disaster Prevention, Baoji River Affair Station, Baoji 721000, P. R. China
Abstract:
The eastern plain lake area is the most concentrated area of freshwater lakes in China, supporting numerous lakes, including China's five largest freshwater lakes. However, human activities such as disconnecting lakes from the mainstream are seriously threatening the aquatic biodiversity in the region. In this study, 9 lakes in the eastern plain were selected to study the temporal (before and after the river-lake disconnection) changes in functional traits (3 groups of categorical traits and 6 continuous traits) and functional diversity index of fish assemblages. The results showed that the total number of fish species across the 9 lakes decreased from 140 species to 100 species through time, and the average species richness per lake decreased from 79.6 to 52.1 (accounting for 34.4% of historical species). The functional trait composition and diversity indices of fish communities changed significantly before and after the river-lake disconnection. The percentages of migratory (from 39.7% to 32.6%) and piscivorous species (from 31.1% to 25.2%) significantly decreased, while the percentages of non-migratory (from 60.3% to 67.5%) and planktivorous species (from 13.5% to 15.5%) significantly increased. For the continuous traits, the average trophic level (from 3.14 to 3.10) significantly decreased but the average growth rate (from 0.57 a-1 to 0.65 a-1) significantly increased. Species richness, FRic, FDiv and FDis all significantly decreased. These results indicated that, after river-lake disconnection, fish assemblages experienced not only a decrease in species richness but also homogenization (or simplification) trend of functional trait composition and decline in functional diversity. Our study provided scientific background for the ecological protection and restoration of eastern plain lakes in China.
Key words:  Eastern plain lakes  river-lake disconnection  fish communities  functional traits  functional diversity index
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