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引用本文:杨桐,袁昌波,曹特,文紫豪,丑庆川,毛永杨,张霄林,倪乐意.洱海沉水植物群落恢复与优化初探.湖泊科学,2021,33(6):1777-1787. DOI:10.18307/2021.0614
Yang Tong,Yuan Changbo,Cao Te,Wen Zihao,Chou Qingchuan,Mao Yongyang,Zhang Xiaolin,Ni Leyi.Preliminary study on recovery and optimization of submerged macrophyte community in Lake Erhai, China. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(6):1777-1787. DOI:10.18307/2021.0614
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洱海沉水植物群落恢复与优化初探
杨桐1, 袁昌波2, 曹特2, 文紫豪2, 丑庆川2, 毛永杨3, 张霄林2, 倪乐意2
1.云南省大理市洱海管理局, 大理 671000;2.中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉 430072;3.云南省大理州食品检验检测院, 大理 671000
摘要:
近几十年来,在入湖营养盐增加,水质持续下降,藻类生物量逐年升高及水位大幅波动下,洱海沉水植物群落演替速度加剧.2016年7月调查显示:洱海沉水植被退化严重,物种数量显著低于近期(2011年)历史水平,分布面积较有记录的历史最高水平(1980s)下降超过70%,优势物种由1960s的海菜花(Ottelia acuminata)、蓖齿眼子菜(Stuckenia pectinata)和大茨藻(Najas marina)等转变为微齿眼子菜(Potamogeton maackianus)、金鱼藻(Ceratophyllum demersum)以及苦草(Vallisneria natans).沉水植物群落在浅水区(0~2.5 m)主要遭受了浮叶植物细果野菱(Trapa maximowiezii)过度生长带来的生境胁迫,在中等水深区(2.5~4 m)面临微齿眼子菜和金鱼藻的过度生长导致的群落结构的单一化影响,而在深水区(>4 m)面临着面积萎缩的风险,这些严重抑制了沉水植物清水稳态效应的发挥.通过对比洱海典型湖湾洱滨村水域沉水植物群落结构在恢复与优化前后的变化,发现洱滨村水域各水深区间沉水植物群落各项多样性指标与恢复物种的丰度均显著提升.因此,我们总结提出了针对洱海典型富营养湖湾沉水植被恢复和管理的建议和对策,以期为后续进一步开展洱海生态系统恢复相关工作提供依据.
关键词:  洱海  沉水植被  现状  恢复  优化
DOI:10.18307/2021.0614
分类号:
基金项目:2018年度洱海水生植被恢复与管理项目(云南省大理州政府委托)资助.
Preliminary study on recovery and optimization of submerged macrophyte community in Lake Erhai, China
Yang Tong1, Yuan Changbo2, Cao Te2, Wen Zihao2, Chou Qingchuan2, Mao Yongyang3, Zhang Xiaolin2, Ni Leyi2
1.Dali Erhai Lake Administration, Yunnan Province, Dali 671000, P. R. China;2.Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;3.Food Inspection and Testing Institute of Dali, Yunnan Province, Dali 671000, P. R. China
Abstract:
With the increasing exogenous nutrients, the continued declining water quality, the year-to-year increasing algae biomass, and the sharply fluctuating water levels, the succession rate of the submerged macrophyte community in Lake Erhai increases over the past several decades. The survey in July 2016 showed that the submerged macrophyte community in Lake Erhai was seriously degraded, the number of species was significantly lower than recent (2011) historical level, and the distribution area fell by more than 70% from the historical high, and the dominant species were transformed from Ottelia acuminata, Stuckenia pectinata and Najas marina (1960s) to Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton maackianus and Vallisneria natans. Submerged macrophytes mainly suffered from the stress caused by Trapa maximowiezii in shallow waters (0-2.5 m), and faced the simplification of the community structure caused by the overgrowth of C. demersum and P. maackianus in the area with medium water depth (2.5-4 m), and subjected to area shrinkage in deep waters (>4 m), which severely inhibited its positive ecological functions. By comparing the structures of submerged macrophyte community before and after the implementation of the submerged vegetation restoration and management project in the waters of Erbin Village, a typical bay in Lake Erhai, we found that artificial restoration and optimization measures positively improved the submerged plant communities in various areas with different water depths in Erbin Village. The abundance of restored species and the diversity indicators of the community was significantly improved. Therefore, we put forward suggestions and countermeasures for the restoration and optimal management of submerged vegetation in the typical eutrophic lake bays of Lake Erhai, with a view to provide a basis for the follow-up projects of the ecosystem restoration in Lake Erhai.
Key words:  Lake Erhai  submerged vegetation  current situation  restoration  optimization
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