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引用本文:姚程,胡小贞,姜霞,陈俊伊,王坤.太湖贡湖湾人工湖滨带水生植物恢复及其富营养化控制.湖泊科学,2021,33(6):1626-1638. DOI:10.18307/2021.0602
Yao Cheng,Hu Xiaozhen,Jiang Xia,Chen Junyi,Wang Kun.Macrophytes restoration and its effects on eutrophication control in rehabilitated lakeshore zone of Gonghu Bay, Lake Taihu. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(6):1626-1638. DOI:10.18307/2021.0602
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太湖贡湖湾人工湖滨带水生植物恢复及其富营养化控制
姚程1,2, 胡小贞2, 姜霞2, 陈俊伊2, 王坤1,2
1.北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875;2.中国环境科学研究院湖泊水污染治理与生态修复国家工程实验室, 北京 100012
摘要:
以太湖贡湖湾人工湖滨带为对象,研究湖滨水生植物修复过程及其富营养化控制效果.人工湖滨区域内的消浪带、岸上护坡措施为水生植物修复提供了良好的生境条件,形成了包括荇菜(Nymphoides peltatum(Gmel.)Kuntze)、睡莲(Nymphaea tetragona Georgi)、菱(Trapa bispinosa Roxb.)为主的浮叶植物群落,以及以黑藻(Hydrilla verticillata(Linn.f.)Royle)、狐尾藻(Myriophyllum verticillatum L.)、小眼子菜(Potamogeton pusillus L.)、竹叶眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)为主的沉水植物群落.通过设置研究区、对照区,持续监测溶解氧、总氮、总磷、氨氮、叶绿素a浓度等水体指标,烧失量、氮含量、磷含量等沉积物指标,水生植物生物量、覆盖度,浮游藻类等指标.不同时期、不同区域间的时空分布显示:随着水生植物的恢复,水体营养状态指数(TLI)、沉积物生物生产力指数(BPI)显著下降,水体透明度显著提升;较高浓度的总氮(>3.0 mg/L)、氨氮(>0.6 mg/L)环境不利于浮叶植物的生长,沉水植物对其则表现出更好的适应性,同时水生植物在成长过程中直接从水体/沉积物中吸收氮;颤藻(Cyanophyta oscillatoria)、直裂藻(Cyanophyta merismopedia)等浮游藻类吸收了水体磷,水生植物利用了沉积物磷,共同缓解了磷在湖滨区域的累计.总结以上,湖滨带的水文水质条件可以影响水生植物群落结构,进而决定氮、磷的控制效果,所以在湖滨带修复中构建合适的生境条件是水生植物发挥氮磷控制效果的重要前提.水生植物在恢复过程中对浮游藻类群落结构的影响是显著的,并且以此影响到湖滨水体中磷的分布.
关键词:  太湖  贡湖湾  湖滨带  水生植物  富营养化  浮游藻类  沉积物
DOI:10.18307/2021.0602
分类号:
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07206)资助.
Macrophytes restoration and its effects on eutrophication control in rehabilitated lakeshore zone of Gonghu Bay, Lake Taihu
Yao Cheng1,2, Hu Xiaozhen2, Jiang Xia2, Chen Junyi2, Wang Kun1,2
1.College of Water Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China;2.National Engineering Laboratory for Lake Pollution Control and Ecological Restoration, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, P. R. China
Abstract:
A rehabilitated lakeshore zone in Gonghu Bay, Lake Taihu, China was chosen to study macrophytes restoration and its effects on eutrophication control. The facilities including wave-weakening belts and bank revetment in rehabilitated lakeshore provided habitat for floating-leaved macrophytes, like Nymphoides peltatum (Gmel.) Kuntze, Nymphaea tetragona Georgi, Trapa bispinosa Roxb., etc. and submerged macrophytes, like Hydrilla verticillate, Myriophyllum verticillatum L., Potamogeton pusillus L., Potamogeton malaianus, etc.. The continuously monitoring on dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, ammonia, chlorophyll-a concentrations of water, ignition loss, nitrogen, phosphorus contents of sediment, macrophytes' coverages and biomass, phytoplankton's density were performed between two study areas and reference area. The space-time distribution of different areas and stages indicated that the trophic level index (TLI) of water and the bioproduction index (BPI) of sediment were remarkedly reduced, the water transparency was significantly increased as the macrophytes restored. The relatively high levels of total nitrogen (>3.0 mg/L) and ammonia (>0.6 mg/L) were the condition unfavorable for the floating-leaved macrophytes but not for the submerged macrophytes, in the meanwhile nitrogen of water and sediment were utilized directly during the macrophytes' restoration. Phytoplankton like Cyanophyta oscillatoria, Cyanophyta merismopedia and etc. absorbing phosphorus from water directly and macrophytes utilizing phosphorus in sediment collaboratively alleviated the phosphorus accumulation in lakeshore. Overall, it is concluded that the hydrological condition and water quality have impact on structure of macrophyte communities in the restoration, thus affecting the efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus control. The macrophytes restoration had significant influences on planktonic communities, of which were directly correlated with phosphorus distribution in lakeshore water.
Key words:  Lake Taihu  Gonghu Bay  lakeshore  macrophytes  eutrophication  phytoplankton  sediment
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