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引用本文:昝婵娟,黄粤,李均力,刘铁,包安明,邢伟,刘志斌.1990—2019年咸海水量平衡及其影响因素分析.湖泊科学,2021,33(4):1265-1275. DOI:10.18307/2021.0426
Zan Chanjuan,Huang Yue,Li Junli,Liu Tie,Bao Anming,Xing Wei,Liu Zhibin.Analysis of water balance in Aral Sea and the influencing factors from 1990 to 2019. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(4):1265-1275. DOI:10.18307/2021.0426
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1990—2019年咸海水量平衡及其影响因素分析
昝婵娟1,2,3, 黄粤1,2,3, 李均力1,2,3, 刘铁1,2,3, 包安明1,2,3, 邢伟1,2, 刘志斌1,2,3
1.中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所荒漠与绿洲生态国家重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830011;2.新疆维吾尔自治区遥感与地理信息系统应用重点实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830011;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
咸海地处中亚,气候和人类的双重影响下湖面急剧萎缩引发区域生态危机,定量解析其水量平衡互动关系及影响因素对咸海地区水资源管理和生态保护有重要意义.基于1990—2019年密集时序Landsat影像、T/P卫星、Jason1/2测高卫星及咸海数字测深模型(DBM),提取近30年咸海面积、水位变化信息,重建咸海水位-面积-库容曲线,探明咸海水量变化特征;建立水量平衡模型,定量分析研究区水量平衡要素变化及时空差异,探讨其互动关系与影响机制.结果表明:(1)1990—2019年间,咸海水量减少了2271.6×108 m3(约75.15%),年平均变化率达-78.3×108 m3/a;南咸海水量变化趋势与咸海整体基本一致,北咸海除1999年出现了极小值外,其余年份水量变化趋势均呈波动上升状态,至2019年水位已恢复至1984年水平.(2)1990s以来,南、北咸海水量平衡结构变化时空差异显著,阿姆河入湖径流量呈波动减少趋势,随着咸海持续退缩水体蒸发不断减小,区域水量支出收入比由1990年的2.46降低到2015年的0.87;近年来丰水年份南咸海地下水可由亏损转化为盈余状态,水域变化进入相对平缓的状态.北咸海入湖径流量波动增加,蒸散发随水域面积增加而增加,1990s初以来水量收入超过水量支出,区域地下水盈余,湖泊水位不断抬升.(3)湖区尺度上,入湖径流量和水域蒸发量是咸海水量变化的主导因素.流域尺度上,气候变化与人类活动共同影响咸海入湖水量,南咸海入湖水量与阿姆河上游来水、流域耕地面积显著相关,而北咸海入湖水量主要与锡尔河上游来水相关.
关键词:  咸海  水量  水量平衡分析  蒸散发  内陆河流域
DOI:10.18307/2021.0426
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院“泛第三极环境变化与绿色丝绸之路建设”专项(XDA2006030102)、国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0404501)、中国科学院创新交叉团队项目(JCTD-2019-20)和中国科学院国际合作项目(131551KYSB20160002)联合资助.
Analysis of water balance in Aral Sea and the influencing factors from 1990 to 2019
Zan Chanjuan1,2,3, Huang Yue1,2,3, Li Junli1,2,3, Liu Tie1,2,3, Bao Anming1,2,3, Xing Wei1,2, Liu Zhibin1,2,3
1.State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, P. R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System Application, Urumqi 830011, P. R. China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, P. R. China
Abstract:
The Aral Sea is located in Central Asia. Under the impact of climate change and human activity, the lake surface has shrunk sharply and triggered a regional ecological crisis. It is of great significance to study the changes of water balance and their driving factors for water resources management and ecological protection in the Aral Sea region. Based on the dense time-series Landsat imagery from 1990 to 2019, T/P satellite, Jason1/2 altimetry satellite, and digital bathymetry model (DBM) of the Aral Sea, time serieses of the Aral Sea area and water level in the past 30 years were extracted, to reconstruct the Aral Sea water level-area-volume capacity curve and explore the characteristics of the Aral Sea volume changes. A water balance equation was also established to quantitatively analyze the spatiotemporal changes of the water balance elements in the study area and their impacts on the Aral Sea volume. The results show that the water volume decreased by 2271.6×108 m3 (about 75.15%) with an average decreasing rate of 78.3×108 m3/a from 1990 to 2019 in the Aral Sea, a similar variation trend was detected in the South Aral Sea. Except for the minimum value in 1999, the water volume in other years showed a fluctuating and rising state in the North Aral Sea. By 2019, the water level had returned to the level of 1984. Since the 1990s, the inflow from the Amu Darya River to the Aral Sea showed a decreasing trend, and the spatiotemporal differences in the water balance structure of the South and the Nouth Aral Sea are significant. As the Aral Sea continues to shrink, and water evaporation continues to decrease, the regional water expenditure and income ratio decreases from 2.46 in 1990 to 0.87 in 2015. In recent years, the groundwater in the South Aral Sea changed from deficit to surplus, and the water area changed into a relatively stable state. The evapotranspiration of the North Aral Sea increased with the increase of the water area. Since the early 1990s, the water income has exceeded its expenditure, regional groundwater has bacome surplus, and the lake water level has been constantly rising. On the regional scale of the Aral Sea, the inflow and evaporation are the main factors affecting the change of the water volume in the Aral Sea. On the catchment scale, climate change and human activities jointly affect the inflow of the Aral Sea. The inflow of the South Aral Sea is significantly correlated with the runoff from the upper Amu Darya River and the cultivated land area of the basin, while the inflow of the North Aral Sea is mainly correlated with the runoff from the upper Syr River.
Key words:  Aral Sea  water volume  water balance analysis  evapotranspiration  inland river basin
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