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引用本文:黄微尘,周丰,梁浩,陈磊.稻田氮磷径流流失模型研究进展.湖泊科学,2021,33(2):336-348. DOI:10.18307/2021.0202
Huang Weichen,Zhou Feng,Liang Hao,Chen Lei.Research progress on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss models for rice paddy. J. Lake Sci.2021,33(2):336-348. DOI:10.18307/2021.0202
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稻田氮磷径流流失模型研究进展
黄微尘1,2, 周丰1,2, 梁浩3, 陈磊4
1.北京大学城市与环境学院, 北京 100871;2.北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871;3.河海大学农业科学与工程学院, 南京 210098;4.北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875
摘要:
水稻是全球最重要的粮食作物,但种植过程中不合理的水肥管理引起了稻田氮磷径流流失,对邻近水体造成污染风险.稻田氮磷径流流失模型是理解区域水体污染排放时空特征和评估水污染风险的有效手段.论文阐述了稻田氮磷径流流失的发生机制和关键过程,梳理了统计经验模型、物理机理模型、水文过程模型和生态系统模型的研发历程.结果表明,当前模型缺乏水-土-气界面过程的有效参数化,基于高分辨率、多年多站点、全通量的模型参数的合理化,以及区域尺度农艺管理(种植制度、施肥制度、灌排制度)和田-沟-塘联合调控措施(分布、规模、运行规则)的模块化,造成了稻田氮磷径流流失的不确定性.同时,提出了面向稻田氮磷循环的高分辨率全通量观测网络建设、农艺管理与调控措施的区域数据集研发、模型开发与先进技术手段的集成与融合、稻田氮-磷-水耦合的多模型集合等,为稻田氮磷径流流失模型的改进、农艺管理措施的优化以及气候智能型稻田的建设提供科学依据.
关键词:  稻田  氮循环  磷循环  径流流失  过程模型
DOI:10.18307/2021.0202
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0800501)和国家自然科学基金项目(41977082)联合资助.
Research progress on nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss models for rice paddy
Huang Weichen1,2, Zhou Feng1,2, Liang Hao3, Chen Lei4
1.College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China;2.Laboratory for Earth Surface Process, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China;3.College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China;4.School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, P. R. China
Abstract:
Rice is the most significant food crop in the world, but nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss, a risk of pollution to adjacent water bodies, would occur during cultivation by unreasonable water and fertilizer management. Nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss model for rice paddies is an effective way, in addition to assessing the risk of water pollution, to understand the spatial and temporal characteristics of regional water pollution discharge. Here, the authors expound the occurrence mechanism and key processes of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff loss in rice paddies, and then systematically reviews the research and development history of statistical empirical model, physical mechanism model, hydrological process model and ecosystem model. The authors point out that current models are limited by the uncertainty of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff losses in paddy fields, due to deficiency in the effective parameterization of the water-soil-air interface process, rationalization of model parameters based on high resolution, multi-year, multi-site and full flux, as well as regional-scale agricultural management (planting, fertilization, irrigation and drainage system) and the modularization of the joint control measures (distribution, scale, operation rules) of paddy-ditch-pond. Finally, the authors propose outlook on the establishment of high-resolution and full flux observation network for rice paddies' nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, regional data set research and development of agricultural management and control measures, integration and fusion of model development and advanced technological means, and multi-model integration of nitrogen-phosphorus-water coupling in rice paddies. Achieving these prospects will provide scientific support for the improvement of nitrogen and phosphorus runoff models for a rice paddy, the optimization of agricultural management measures, and the construction of climate-smart rice paddies.
Key words:  Rice paddies  nitrogen cycle  phosphorus cycle  runoff loss  process model
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