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引用本文:刘正文,苏雅玲,杨柳.湖沼学是研究内陆水体的多学科整合科学——兼论我国湖沼学发展面临的挑战与机遇.湖泊科学,2020,32(5):1244-1253. DOI:10.18307/2020.0502
LIU Zhengwen,SU Yaling,YANG Liu.Limnology is a multidisciplinary and integrative science for studying inland waters: With special reference to the challenges and opportunities for the development of limnology in China. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(5):1244-1253. DOI:10.18307/2020.0502
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湖沼学是研究内陆水体的多学科整合科学——兼论我国湖沼学发展面临的挑战与机遇
刘正文1,2,3, 苏雅玲1, 杨柳1
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所, 南京 210008;2.暨南大学生态学系, 广州 510632;3.中国-丹麦科学与教育中心, 北京 100190
摘要:
湖沼学是研究内陆水体的多学科交叉综合性科学,自从Forel F.A.于1892年首次对湖沼学做出定义以来已有近130年历史.湖沼学的主要分支学科包括地质湖沼学(包括古湖沼学)、物理湖沼学、化学(生物地球化学)湖沼学和生物湖沼学.湖沼学的关键自然属性是通过跨学科的整合,从水生态系统水平综合分析相关过程与机理,并对生态系统变化进行预测.因此,湖泊学也是支撑水资源与生态系统保护、管理与修复的核心科学.然而,目前我国湖沼学发展面临分支学科发展不平衡、研究碎片化等问题,而人类活动加剧和气候变化对内陆水体生态系统的影响及管理对策是湖沼学研究面临的挑战与机遇.我国湖沼学研究亟需围绕人类活动、气候变化的影响,重点开展以下几个方面的工作:1)水动力与水文地貌特征变化及其环境生态效应;2)营养盐和有机质生物地球化学循环及其环境生态效应;3)食物网结构与功能;4)外来入侵物种的影响与控制对策;5)与水环境有关的传染病防治;6)地表水生态评价;7)生态系统演变机理与退化生态系统修复等.
关键词:  湖沼学  历史  水资源  生态系统  管理
DOI:10.18307/2020.0502
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所“一三五”战略发展规划项目(NIGLAS2017GH01)和中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS计划)项目(KFJ-STS-ZDTP-038)联合资助.
Limnology is a multidisciplinary and integrative science for studying inland waters: With special reference to the challenges and opportunities for the development of limnology in China
LIU Zhengwen1,2,3, SU Yaling1, YANG Liu1
1.Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, P. R. China;3.Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing 100190, P. R. China
Abstract:
Limnology is a multidisciplinary and integrative science studying inland waters, having a history of nearly 130 years since Francois Alphonse Forel defined it firstly in 1892. The main subdisciplines include geological limnology (including paleoplimnology), physical limnology, chemical (biogeochemical) limnology and biological limnology. The key feature of limnology is the interdisciplinary nature that is achieved by integrating different disciplines to synthesize the process and mechanisms at the level of the ecosystem, and to predict the ecosystem changes. Therefore, limnology is the key science supporting the protection, management and restoration of inland water ecosystems and water resources. However, the development of limnology in China is faced with the problems such as unbalanced development in subdisciplines and fragmentation in researches. The effects of increased human activities and global changes on inland waters are the challenges and opportunities for limnological researches. The main research topics in China need to focus on the effects of human activities and global changes on inland waters, including: 1) the changes in hydrodynamics and hydromorphology and their ecological and environment effects; 2) nutrient and organic matter biogeochemical cycling and the associated ecological and environment effects; 3) structures and functioning of food webs; 4) impacts of invaded species and managements; 5) the control of water associated diseases; 6) ecological quality assessments of surface waters; 7) ecosystem evolution and the mechanisms, and restoration of degraded ecosystems.
Key words:  Limnology  history  water resources  ecosystems  management
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