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引用本文:匡荟芬,胡春华,吴根林,陈苗.结合主成分分析法(PCA)和正定矩阵因子分解法(PMF)的鄱阳湖丰水期表层沉积物重金属源解析.湖泊科学,2020,32(4):964-976. DOI:
KUANG Huifen,HU Chunhua,WU Genlin,CHEN Miao.Combination of PCA and PMF to apportion the sources of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Poyang during the wet season. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(4):964-976. DOI:
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结合主成分分析法(PCA)和正定矩阵因子分解法(PMF)的鄱阳湖丰水期表层沉积物重金属源解析
匡荟芬, 胡春华, 吴根林, 陈苗
南昌大学资源环境与化工学院, 鄱阳湖环境与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 南昌 330031
摘要:
为识别表层沉积物重金属的来源以及量化源贡献,选取鄱阳湖丰水期表层沉积物为研究对象,测定14种重金属(V、Cr、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Sr、Mo、Cd、Sb、W、Pb、Hg和As)的含量,分析其污染及空间分布特征,并利用主成分分析法(PCA)和正定矩阵因子分解法(PMF)对沉积物重金属进行源解析.结果表明:除V和Cr外,Cd、Mo、Hg、Cu、Pb、Zn、W、Sr、As、Ni、Co和Sb的平均含量分别为江西省土壤背景值的5.7、2.2、1.9、1.8、1.5、1.5、1.4、1.3、1.3、1.2、1.0和1.0倍;Cd、Hg、Cu、Mo、Pb、Sr和Zn超出江西省土壤背景值的比例相对较高,分别为100%、100%、100%、100%、97%、97%和93%,所有沉积物样品中Cd含量超过农用地土壤污染风险筛选值的比例为51%;V、Cr、Co、Ni、Cu、Zn、Sr、Mo、Sb、W、Pb、Hg和As含量呈未污染至弱污染水平,而Cd含量属于中等污染水平,接近于重污染水平.总体而言,Cd的污染相对较严重.重金属的分布具有显著的区域特征,其中Cr、Cu、Zn、Sr、Pb、Hg和As的空间分布十分相似,表现为在赣江、抚河、信江和饶河入湖口附近区域含量较高,而Co、Ni、Mo和Sb明显在湖区南部、东北部和修水入湖附近这3个区域聚集,Cd和W的空间变异性相对较大,V的含量分布相对较均匀.PCA和PMF解析结果都表明鄱阳湖丰水期表层沉积物重金属受4种来源的共同影响,其中,矿业和工业活动的影响最大,相对贡献率为38%,其次是尾矿和废渣,相对贡献率为28%,再是农业活动,相对贡献率为19%,最后是自然来源的相对贡献率为14%.
关键词:  主成分分析  正定矩阵因子分解  鄱阳湖  沉积物  重金属  源解析  丰水期
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41663002)、江西省自然科学基金项目(20161BAB203080)和鄱阳湖环境与资源利用重点实验室支持项目(13005870,13005879)联合资助.
Combination of PCA and PMF to apportion the sources of heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Poyang during the wet season
KUANG Huifen, HU Chunhua, WU Genlin, CHEN Miao
Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Environment and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Education, School of Resources Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031, P. R. China
Abstract:
In order to identify the source of heavy metals and quantify their contributions, surface sediment of Lake Poyang during the wet season were selected as the research object, and the contents of 14 heavy metals (V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, W, Pb, Hg and As) were determined. The pollution and spatial distribution characteristics of 14 heavy metals were analyzed, and the principal component analysis (PCA) and positive definite matrix factorization (PMF) were applied to apportion the sources of sediment heavy metals. The results showed that except for V and Cr, the average contents of Cd, Mo, Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, W, Sr, As, Ni, Co and Sb were 5.7, 2.2, 1.9, 1.8, 1.5, 1.5, 1.4, 1.3, 1.3, 1.2, 1.0 and 1.0 times of their respective soil background values of Jiangxi Province. The exceeding rates of Cd, Hg, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sr and Zn were relatively high, there were 100%, 100%, 100%, 100%, 97%, 97% and 93% of sediment samples with higher Cd, Hg, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sr and Zn contents than their respective soil background values of Jiangxi Province, respectively. And 51% of sediment samples had higher Cd contents than the risk screening values for soil contamination of agricultural land. V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Mo, Sb, W, Pb, Hg and As were at unpolluted to minimal contamination levels, while Cd displayed moderate contamination level, closed to heavy contamination level. Overall, the pollution of Cd was relatively serious. The distribution of heavy metals had significant regional characteristics. The spatial distributions of Cr, Cu, Zn, Sr, Pb, Hg and As were very similar, showing the high content values were clustered near the river inlets of Ganjiang, Fuhe, Xinjiang, Raohe, while Co, Ni, Mo and Sb were obviously concentrated in the southern of lake region, the northeast region and the Xiushui into the lake. The spatial variability of Cd and W was relatively large, while the contents of V were relatively uniform. Source apportionment results of PCA and PMF indicated that the heavy metals in surface sediments from Lake Poyang during the wet season were affected by four sources. Mining and industrial activities, tailings and waste residue, agricultural activities were identified as the main anthropogenic sources for sediment heavy metals in this study area, accounting for 38%, 28% and 19% of the total contribution, respectively. The remainder was the natural source, accounting for 14% of total contribution.
Key words:  Principal component analysis  positive matrix factorization  Lake Poyang  sediment  heavy metal  source apportionment  wet season
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