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引用本文:曹开强,李言阔,王强,周学红,钟毅峰,缪泸君.鄱阳湖湿地豆雁(Anser fabalis)越冬种群的春季迁徙路线及其活动特征.湖泊科学,2020,32(2):496-505. DOI:10.18307/2020.0218
CAO Kaiqiang,LI Yankuo,WANG Qiang,ZHOU Xuehong,ZHONG Yifeng,MIAO Lujun.Spring migration routes and activity characteristics of populations of Anser fabalis wintering in Lake Poyang. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(2):496-505. DOI:10.18307/2020.0218
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鄱阳湖湿地豆雁(Anser fabalis)越冬种群的春季迁徙路线及其活动特征
曹开强1, 李言阔1, 王强2, 周学红3, 钟毅峰1, 缪泸君4
1.江西师范大学生命科学学院, 南昌 330022;2.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所, 中国科学院湿地生态与环境重点实验室, 长春 130102;3.东北林业大学野生动物资源学院, 哈尔滨 150040;4.江西省林业科学院, 南昌 330032
摘要:
了解迁徙路线和迁徙前后活动规律对候鸟的保护具有重要意义.2019年2-3月,在鄱阳湖对20只豆雁(Anser fabalis)佩戴了卫星跟踪器,研究了鄱阳湖豆雁越冬种群的迁徙路线和活动特征.结果表明,最早的个体在3月12日开始北迁,较晚的个体4月25日北迁,截至6月20日仍有部分个体没有迁徙.豆雁卫星追踪时间为60.5±15.6天(n=19),迁徙距离为1349.5±1004.9 km (n=18),迁徙时间为34.7±16.1天(n=18),停歇地的数量为6±3(n=18).豆雁的春季迁徙路线可以分为东线和中线两部分,东线经过我国安徽、江苏、山东、辽宁、吉林、黑龙江,进入俄罗斯;中线经过我国湖北、安徽、河南、河北、内蒙古,进入蒙古.豆雁在30°~40°N之间较少做长时间的停留,而在40°~50°N之间会做2.7±1.1次(n=9)较长时间的停歇,每次停歇长达12.7±7.2天(n=24),东北平原和内蒙古高原东部是豆雁重要的中途停歇地.豆雁日间的活动量显著高于夜间,迁徙前期的活动量显著高于迁徙期,迁徙前期在8:00-9:00和18:00-19:00两个时段为活动高峰,迁徙期每天7:00-8:00和18:00-19:00两个时段为活动高峰.在不同环境温度区内豆雁的活动距离存在显著差异(n=8827,df=9,P=0.000),在0~5℃时的平均活动距离最大,为4.9±14.4 km/h.
关键词:  鄱阳湖  迁徙路线  活动特征  豆雁
DOI:10.18307/2020.0218
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31660618)和国家重点基础研发计划项目(2016YFC0500406)联合资助.
Spring migration routes and activity characteristics of populations of Anser fabalis wintering in Lake Poyang
CAO Kaiqiang1, LI Yankuo1, WANG Qiang2, ZHOU Xuehong3, ZHONG Yifeng1, MIAO Lujun4
1.College of Life Sciences, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022, P. R. China;2.Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, P. R. China;3.College of Wildlife Resources, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, P. R. China;4.Jiangxi Academy of Forestry, Nanchang 330032, P. R. China
Abstract:
Understanding animal migration route and activity rhythm are of great significance to protection of migratory birds. From February to March 2019, 20 Bean geese (Anser fabalis) in Lake Poyang were tracked with satellite collars. We analyzed their migration routes and activity rhythm during their migration period based on the data collected from these GPS collars. The results showed that Bean goose started migration most early in 12, March, and some started in 25, April. The Bean geese were tracked for 60.5±15.6 days (n=19), with migration distance 1349.5±1004.9 km (n=18) and stop site number 6±3 (n=18). The spring migration routes of Bean goose formed two lines:the east line and the middle line. The east line passed through Anhui, Jiangsu, Shandong, Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang Provinces, and arrived at Russia. The middle line passed through Hubei, Anhui, Henan, Hebei, Inner Mongolia Provinces, and arrived at Mongolia. Bean goose didn't stay for a long time in stopover sites between 30°-40°N latitude, but stopped for a significant longer time (12.7±7.2 days) between 40°-50°N latitude. Northeast China Plain and the eastern Inner Mongolia plateau are important stopover sites for them. Bean goose is a diurnal animal; its activity level in day is significantly higher than that at night. In the pre-migration period, the activity peaks at 8:00-9:00 and 18:00-19:00, while the activity peaks occurred in 7:00-8:00 and 18:00-19:00 during migration. There was significant variation of average migration distance in different environment temperatures (n=8827,df=9,P=0.000), and its maximum migration distance (4.9±14.4 km/h) occurred in 0-5℃.
Key words:  Lake Poyang  migration route  activity level  Bean goose
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