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引用本文:陶玉强,赵睿涵.持久性有机污染物在中国湖库水体中的污染现状及分布特征.湖泊科学,2020,32(2):309-324. DOI:10.18307/2020.0203
TAO Yuqiang,ZHAO Ruihan.Occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants in water of Chinese lakes and reservoirs. J. Lake Sci.2020,32(2):309-324. DOI:10.18307/2020.0203
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持久性有机污染物在中国湖库水体中的污染现状及分布特征
陶玉强1,2, 赵睿涵3
1.河海大学海洋学院, 南京 210098;2.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;3.南京农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 南京 210095
摘要:
持久性有机污染物(POPs)在环境中广泛且持久存在,多数具有致畸、致癌、致突变等危害.中国是全球湖泊密度较大的国家之一,湖泊在供水、渔业、维护生态系统多样性等众多方面发挥了重要作用.湖泊是POPs的重要归宿之一.湖泊水体中的POPs可被水生生物吸收利用并传递,对生态系统及人体健康构成较大危害.因此湖泊水体中POPs的分布水平对周围的生态系统及人体健康有非常重要的影响.本文收集、分析了2003年至2019年2月公开发表的80篇文献中的中国湖泊水体POPs数据,包括多环芳烃(PAHs)、六六六类农药(HCHs)、滴滴涕类农药(DDX)、多氯联苯(PCBs)、多溴联苯醚(PBDEs)、多氯联苯醚类(PCDEs)、全氟化合物(PFCs)及邻苯二甲酸酯类(PAEs),发现:目前中国已有水体POPs研究数据的湖泊共有49个,涉及19个省、直辖市、自治区,研究区域主要在东部地区(n=32),云贵高原(n=14)和青藏-新疆湖区(n=3)少有研究,其它地区鲜有研究;PAHs、HCHs和DDX是研究最多的三类POPs,在中国湖泊水体中平均浓度分别为360.0±433.8 ng/L (n=26)、12.8±23.5 ng/L (n=30)、12.8±24.6 ng/L (n=24);不同湖区间、不同种类POPs以及不同时间相同POPs检出值差距均较大,东部湖区水体POPs浓度高于其它湖区;从时间角度看,虽然这三类POPs各自占总污染物量比例在2010年前后无较大变化,但2010年后的浓度与2010年以前相比有所下降,说明中国履行《关于持久性有机污染物(POPs)的斯德哥尔摩公约》内容以及对PAHs的管控减排已显成效;POPs在中国湖泊水体中的浓度与季节、水体深度(上覆水与间隙水)、采样点位置(入湖口、湖心及出水口)以及人为活动(农业耕作、生活排污、工业污水及码头船只往来等)存在一定关系,但并非完全受这些因素影响,还与POPs种类、所处区域的地理位置等诸多因素有关.本文基于大量已发表文献中的研究数据,揭示了中国湖泊水体POPs的污染现状及分布特征,可为中国POPs的污染控制及湖泊保护提供一定的科学依据.
关键词:  持久性有机污染物  中国湖泊  湖泊水体  污染现状  分布特征
DOI:10.18307/2020.0203
分类号:
基金项目:江苏省杰出青年基金项目(BK20170049)、国家自然科学基金项目(41977330)、中国科学院青年创新促进会优秀会员专项、国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110900-03)和中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所交叉团队项目(NIGLAS2016TD01)联合资助.
Occurrence and distribution of persistent organic pollutants in water of Chinese lakes and reservoirs
TAO Yuqiang1,2, ZHAO Ruihan3
1.College of Oceanography, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, P. R. China;2.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;3.College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, P. R. China
Abstract:
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widespread and persistent in the environment, and most of them are teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. China is one of the countries with a high density of lakes in the world. Lakes play an important role in many aspects such as water supply, fisheries, and maintenance of ecosystem diversity. In addition, lakes are important sinks of POPs. The POPs in lake water can absorb and be utilized by aquatic organisms, which poses great risk to ecosystems and human health. Therefore, the distribution of POPs in lake water has an important impact on the surrounding ecosystem and human health. We collected 80 articles on the topic of POPs in Chinese lake water published from 2003 to February 2019. We collected and analyzed the published data of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDX), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and phthalate esters (PAEs). The POPs in Chinese lake water have been investigated in 49 lakes, involving 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions in China, mainly located in the eastern region (n=32), and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (n=14). There were fewer studies in the Qinghai-Xinjiang Lake District (n=3), and other areas. Among them, PAHs, HCHs and DDX were the most studied POPs. Their average concentrations of ΣPAHs, ΣHCHs, and ΣDDX in Chinese lake water were 360.0±433.8 ng/L (n=26), 12.8±23.5 ng/L (n=30), and 12.8±24.6 ng/L (n=24). The concentrations of POPs in water of eastern lakes were higher than those in lakes in other areas. Although the relative proportions of ΣPAHs, ΣHCHs and ΣDDX to the concentration of total pollutants did not change significantly before and after the year of 2010, their concentrations decreased, suggesting that the compliance with the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the mitigation of PAHs were effective in China. The depth of water (overlying water and interstitial water), sampling location (the inlet and outlet of lakes and within the lakes) were important factors for concentrations of POPs in Chinese lake water. The concentrations of POPs in Chinese lake water were correlated with human activities such as agricultural farming, domestic sewage, industrial sewage, and docks, and the type of POPs and geographical location of the studied area. Based on the research data collected from a large number of published literatures, this review revealed the distribution characteristics of POPs in Chinese lake water, and provided a scientific basis for the control and mitigation of POPs in Chinese lakes.
Key words:  Persistent organic pollutants  Chinese lake  lake water  occurrence  distribution charactersitics
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