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引用本文:邢伟,鲍锟山,韩冬雪,王国平.全新世以来东北地区沼泽湿地发育过程及其对气候变化的响应.湖泊科学,2019,31(5):1391-1402. DOI:
XING Wei,BAO Kunshan,HAN Dongxue,WANG Guoping.Holocene wetland developing history and its response to climate change in northeast China. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(5):1391-1402. DOI:
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全新世以来东北地区沼泽湿地发育过程及其对气候变化的响应
邢伟1,2, 鲍锟山3, 韩冬雪2, 王国平2
1.信阳师范学院地理科学学院, 信阳 464000;2.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所湿地生态与环境重点实验室, 长春 130102;3.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008
摘要:
沼泽湿地是陆地生态系统的重要组成部分,在维护区域环境稳定中起着重要作用.随着社会经济的发展,人类活动导致湿地大面积退化和消失,严重影响了区域生态安全;恢复退化湿地已成为各国政府和学者关注的焦点.而了解历史时期沼泽湿地发育过程及影响因素则是建立合理湿地恢复目标的重要前提.东北地区是我国最大的沼泽湿地集中分布区,其中70%的湿地面临不同程度的退化威胁;但由于数据的缺乏,东北地区沼泽湿地发育过程及其与气候变化的关系仍不清楚.基于此,本研究系统分析了全新世以来东北地区沼泽湿地形成发育的动态变化过程,并探讨了东北地区不同区域沼泽湿地的发育规律及其对气候变化的响应机理.研究发现东北地区沼泽湿地约从12 ka(1 ka=1000 cal.)开始发育,在距今8.6 ka以后开始广泛形成,约有35%的沼泽湿地形成于全新世暖湿期(8.0-4.0 ka);而沼泽湿地发育的高峰期则集中在全新世晚期.这种发育趋势与全球北方主要区域沼泽湿地大规模发育趋势显著不同.古气候重建表明,全新世早期东北地区气候温暖湿润,处在有利于沼泽发育的时期,促进了沼泽湿地的形成;而在全新世晚期,东北地区呈现冷湿的气候组合特征,冷湿的气候条件不利于有机质的分解,进而促进了沼泽湿地的大规模形成和发育.此外,研究结果也表明全新世以来东北地区不同区域沼泽湿地发育的时间和规模呈现显著的空间差异,而温度和降水则是影响不同区域沼泽湿地发育的最重要因素.本研究将为我国东北地区沼泽湿地的保护和恢复提供一定的理论和数据支持.
关键词:  沼泽湿地  气候变化  湿地发育  全新世  东北地区
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划项目(2016YFA0602301)、国家自然科学基金项目(41601104)、山东省水土保持与环境保育重点实验室开放基金项目(STKF201927)和信阳师范学院“南湖学者奖励计划”青年项目联合资助.
Holocene wetland developing history and its response to climate change in northeast China
XING Wei1,2, BAO Kunshan3, HAN Dongxue2, WANG Guoping2
1.College of Geographic Sciences, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang 464000, P. R. China;2.Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Environment, Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, P. R. China;3.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China
Abstract:
Wetland is an important part of terrestrial ecosystem, which plays an important role in maintaining regional environmental stability. With the development of social economy, human activities have led to the wetland extensive degradation and disappearance, which has seriously affected regional ecological security. Restoring wetlands has become the focus of governments and scholars. Understanding the wetland development process and influencing factors in the historical period is an important precondition for establishing reasonable wetland restoration goal. Northeast China is the largest freshwater wetlands area in China, 70% of which are threatened by degradation. Due to the lack of data, the wetland development history and its response to climate change are still poorly documented and understood in this region. Based on this, we systematically analyzed the wetland evolution history in northeast China since the Holocene, and discussed the wetland initiation in different regions of northeast China and examine its links to climate changes during the Holocene. The results show that wetlands started to form at the beginning of the Holocene across northeast China; wetlands began to develop in a large number after 8.6 ka(1 ka=1000 cal.). Nearly 35% of wetlands were initiated in the Holocene optimum; and the majority of wetlands in northeast China were initiated by and developed during the late Holocene, which is very different from the timings for other major northern peatland regions. In the early Holocene, due to the high solar insolation and stronger East Asian monsoon intensity, the climate was warm and humid in northeast China, which promoted the wetlands initiation and development. During the late Holocene, the widespread peatland initiation might have been caused by the cool and moist climate patterns in this region, and this climate combination was not conducive to the decomposition of organic matter and promoted the large-scale wetland development. This pattern confirmed the hypothesis of accelerating initiation and growth of the northern wetlands during the late Holocene. In addition, the results also show that the optimum time and scale of the wetland initiation have shown significant spatial changes in different regions across northeast China since the Holocene, and the temperature and precipitation are the important factors affecting the wetland evolution in different regions. This study will provide some theoretical and data support for the wetland protection and restoration in northeast China in the future.
Key words:  Wetland  climate change  wetland development  Holocene  northeast China
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