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引用本文:王杰,许有鹏,王跃峰,王强,袁甲,高斌,项捷,代晓颖.平原河网地区人类活动对降雨-水位关系的影响——以太湖流域杭嘉湖地区为例.湖泊科学,2019,31(3):779-787. DOI:10.18307/2019.0316
WANG Jie,XU Youpeng,WANG Yuefeng,WANG Qiang,YUAN Jia,GAO Bin,XIANG Jie,DAI Xiaoying.Impacts of anthropogenic activity on the response of water level to rainfall in the urbanized plain river network: A case study in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region of Taihu Basin. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(3):779-787. DOI:10.18307/2019.0316
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平原河网地区人类活动对降雨-水位关系的影响——以太湖流域杭嘉湖地区为例
王杰, 许有鹏, 王跃峰, 王强, 袁甲, 高斌, 项捷, 代晓颖
南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023
摘要:
太湖流域快速城镇化、水利工程等一系列人类活动对流域水文过程产生了深刻影响.本文以快速城镇化的杭嘉湖地区为例,基于1961-2014年逐日降雨、水位观测资料,构建了水位涨幅(ΔZ)、水位增长速率(k1)和退水速率(k2)等指标,旨在揭示变化环境下该地区降雨过程中水位的变化特征及可能的驱动因素.结果表明:1)变化环境下杭嘉湖地区近54年降雨量呈微弱的增加趋势,但降雨过程中的水位涨幅呈下降趋势,尤其是平均水位涨幅呈显著下降趋势,且于2000年左右发生明显变化;突变后水位涨幅下降主要集中在10~50 mm/d的降雨过程中,而大于50 mm/d的降雨过程中突变后水位涨幅较突变前有所升高.2)从空间分布上来看,各站降雨量与水位涨幅存在明显的空间差异,降雨量总体呈增加趋势,增加趋势东强西弱;大部分站点的水位涨幅却呈下降趋势,其中位于区域南部站点的平均水位涨幅下降趋势较东北部更为明显,水位涨幅呈显著下降站点的空间分布与杭嘉湖南排工程等水利工程的分布较为一致.3)通过对杭嘉湖地区降雨过程中水位增长速率和退水速率的变化分析发现,突变后较突变前退水速率有所提高,说明近年来水利工程等设施的完善和有序调度使得杭嘉湖地区的排洪能力有所提高,该变化可能是导致杭嘉湖地区地区突变后一定强度的降雨过程中水位涨幅下降的主要原因.而杭嘉湖地区强降雨过程中水位涨幅依然较高,可能是该地区洪峰水位居高不下的主要原因.此外,由于该地区近年来起涨水位抬升明显,对洪峰水位的抬升也有一定影响.
关键词:  太湖流域  杭嘉湖地区  平原河网地区  水位涨幅  水位增长速率  退水速率
DOI:10.18307/2019.0316
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0401502)、国家自然科学基金项目(41771032)和江苏水利基金重大项目(2015003)联合资助.
Impacts of anthropogenic activity on the response of water level to rainfall in the urbanized plain river network: A case study in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region of Taihu Basin
WANG Jie, XU Youpeng, WANG Yuefeng, WANG Qiang, YUAN Jia, GAO Bin, XIANG Jie, DAI Xiaoying
School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, P.R.China
Abstract:
Rapid urbanization and human activities have a profound impact on the hydrological process in Taihu Basin. This paper constructed three indices include the water level rising (ΔZ), the rate of water level rising (k1) and the rate of water level recession (k2). Based on the observation data of daily rainfall and water level during 1961-2014, we try to reveal the variation characteristics of the water level and possible driving factors in the rainfall process in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region. The results indicate that:(1) The rainfall shows an increasing trend, but the ΔZ shows a decreasing trend during the rainfall process. Especially, the average water level rising shows a significant decreasing trend and the abrupt change occurs in the year 2000 AD. The decreased ΔZ mainly occurs in the rainfall intensity ranged from 10 mm/d to 50 mm/d after 2000 AD. The ΔZ shows an increased trend in heavy rainfall process above 50 mm/d. (2) The rainfall in the east shows a significantly increasing trend than in the west. However, ΔZ in many stations is declining, which is more significant in the south. These changes is inseparable from the flood discharge project in the Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region. (3) Through the analysis of the k1 and k2 in the rainfall process, k2 is increased, which indicates that the development of water conservancy facilities and orderly scheduling has improved the flood discharge capacity in recent years. This change may be the main cause for the declined k2 in a certain intensity of rainfall after 2000 AD. The ΔZ remained high in the heavy rainfall process, which can be related to that the current flood discharge capacity that cannot resist the increase of ΔZ. In addition, the incipient rising water level has increased significantly in recent years, which also makes a certain impact on the flood in the study area.
Key words:  Taihu Basin  Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou region  plain river network  the water level rising  the rate of water level rising  the rate of water level recession
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