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引用本文:王欣,丁永建,张勇.冰川融水对山地冰冻圈冰湖水文效应的影响.湖泊科学,2019,31(3):609-620. DOI:10.18307/2019.0301
WANG Xin,DING Yongjian,ZHANG Yong.The influence of glacier meltwater on the hydrological effect of glacial lakes in Mountain Cryosphere. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(3):609-620. DOI:10.18307/2019.0301
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冰川融水对山地冰冻圈冰湖水文效应的影响
王欣1,2, 丁永建2, 张勇1,2
1.湖南科技大学资源环境与安全工程学院, 湘潭 411100;2.中国科学院西北生态环境资源研究院冰冻圈科学国家重点实验室, 兰州 730000
摘要:
冰川融水通过热量、水、物质传输对山地冰冻圈冰湖水文效应产生影响,引起广泛关注.本文从山地冰冻圈冰湖的水量、物理化学性质、生物等方面系统总结冰川融水对冰湖水文效应的影响.冰川融水被冰湖滞留能在一定程度上延缓区域冰川水资源的亏损,但也直接导致了潜在危险性冰湖数量和危险程度增大.冰川融水对冰湖物理性质的影响主要表现在降低湖水温度、影响透明度/浊度、改变湖水密度、造成湖水热力分层现象等方面,对冰湖化学性质的影响主要表现在增加湖水中的氮素、溶解有机物、持久性有机污染物、各类离子和重金属等,进而影响冰湖生物的分布、组成、结构和功能.深入系统地开展冰川融水及其变化对冰湖水文效应研究,对冰川水文与水资源、山地冰冻圈生态环境研究具有重要意义.
关键词:  山地冰冻圈  物理化学性质  冰湖  水文效应  灾害
DOI:10.18307/2019.0301
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41771075,41271091)和国家重大科学研究计划重大科学目标导向项目(2013CBA01800)联合资助.
The influence of glacier meltwater on the hydrological effect of glacial lakes in Mountain Cryosphere
WANG Xin1,2, DING Yongjian2, ZHANG Yong1,2
1.School of Resource Environment and Safety Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411100, P.R.China;2.State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Ecology and Environmental Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, P.R.China
Abstract:
Much attention has been attracted on the glacier meltwater due to its influence on the hydrological effect of glacial lakes through heat, water and material transmission in Mountain Cryosphere. We summarized the impacts of glacier meltwater on the hydrological effects with respects to the water quantity, physicochemical properties and biology of glacial lake in this paper. A certain amount of glacier water resources has been temporarily held resulted by the meltwater direct inflowing into glacial lakes, which retarded the loss water resources in the glaciated area to some extent on one hand, increased the number and hazardousness of the potential dangerous glacial lakes on the other hand. Glacier meltwater affects both physical and chemical properties of glacial lakes. Meltwater normally reduced lake temperature, disturbed lake transparency/turbidity, and facilitated thermal stratification of the glacial lake. Meltwater also increased the contents of nitrogen, dissolved organic matter, persistent organic pollutants, ion concentrations and heavy metals in the glacial lake water, influenced the distribution, composition, structure and function of glacial lake organisms and ecosystem. An in-depth and systematic research on the impacts of glacier meltwater and its changes on hydrological effect of glacial lakes, is of great significant to the glacier hydrology, water resources and ecological environment study of Mountain Cryosphere.
Key words:  Mountain Cryosphere  physical chemistry properties  glacial lake  hydrological effect  hazard
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