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引用本文:闾利,张廷斌,易桂花,苗加庆,李景吉,别小娟,黄祥麟.2000年以来青藏高原湖泊面积变化与气候要素的响应关系.湖泊科学,2019,31(2):573-589. DOI:10.18307/2019.0225
LV Li,ZHANG Tingbin,YI Guihua,MIAO Jiaqing,LI Jingji,BIE Xiaojuan,HUANG Xianglin.Changes of lake areas and its response to the climatic factors in Tibetan Plateau since 2000. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(2):573-589. DOI:10.18307/2019.0225
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2000年以来青藏高原湖泊面积变化与气候要素的响应关系
闾利1, 张廷斌1,2, 易桂花3, 苗加庆2,4, 李景吉5,6, 别小娟1, 黄祥麟1
1.成都理工大学地球科学学院, 成都 610059;2.成都理工大学工程技术学院, 乐山 614000;3.成都理工大学管理科学学院, 成都 610059;4.蒙大拿大学物理工程系, 美国蒙大拿州 59801;5.成都理工大学环境与土木工程学院, 成都 610059;6.成都理工大学生态资源与景观研究所, 成都 610059
摘要:
青藏高原星罗密布的湖泊对气候变化十分敏感,在自然界水循环和水平衡中发挥着重要作用.以MODIS MOD09A1和SRTM DEM为数据源,提取了2000-2016年青藏高原丰水期面积大于50 km2的湖泊边界,从内外流分区、湖泊主要补给来源和湖水矿化度三个方面对2000年以来湖泊面积变化进行分析,并结合青藏高原近36年气象数据,根据气象要素变化趋势分区,初步探讨青藏高原湖泊面积变化与气候要素的关系.结果表明:青藏高原面积大于50 km2的138个湖泊整体扩张趋势显著,总面积增加2340.67 km2,增长率为235.52 km2/a.其中,扩张型湖泊占67.39%,萎缩型湖泊占12.32%,稳定型湖泊占20.29%.内流湖扩张趋势显著,外流湖扩张趋势较明显;以冰雪融水为主要补给来源的湖泊整体扩张趋势明显,以地表径流和河流补给为主要补给源的湖泊也呈扩张趋势;盐湖和咸水湖以扩张为主,淡水湖的扩张、萎缩和稳定三种类型较均衡.在青藏高原气候暖湿化方向发展背景下,湖泊面积变化与气候要素具有显著的区域相关性.气温和降水变化趋势分区结果表明,气温增加、降水增加强趋势的高原Ⅰ区湖泊扩张程度(78.18%)依次大于气温降低、降水量呈增加趋势的Ⅴ区(66.67%),气温、降水量呈增加趋势的Ⅱ区(60.78%),气温呈降低、降水量呈增加强趋势的Ⅳ区(58.83%)和气温呈增加、降水量呈减少趋势的Ⅲ区(50.00%).湖泊面积变化对气候变化响应研究表明,升温引起的冰雪融水补给对Ⅰ区、Ⅱ区和Ⅲ区湖泊面积扩张的影响显著,加之降水量的增加,湖泊扩张速率明显;Ⅳ区和Ⅴ区湖泊面积扩张主要受降水量增加影响显著.整体而言,气温主要影响以冰雪融水为主要补给来源的湖泊,降水量主要影响以降水和地表径流为主要补给来源的湖泊.
关键词:  青藏高原  湖泊面积  气候变化  MODIS  遥感
DOI:10.18307/2019.0225
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41501060,41801099)、四川省自然科学重点项目(18ZA0042)和中国地质调查局项目(DD20160015-26)联合资助.
Changes of lake areas and its response to the climatic factors in Tibetan Plateau since 2000
LV Li1, ZHANG Tingbin1,2, YI Guihua3, MIAO Jiaqing2,4, LI Jingji5,6, BIE Xiaojuan1, HUANG Xianglin1
1.College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, P. R. China;2.The Engineering & Technical College of Chengdu University of Technology, Leshan 614000, P. R. China;3.College of Management Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, P. R. China;4.Department of Geophysical Engineering, Montana Tech of the University of Montana, Butte, MT 59801, USA;5.Chengdu University of Technology, College of Environmental and Civil Engineering Institute, Chengdu 610059, P. R. China;6.Chengdu University of Technology, Institute of Ecological Resource and Landscape, Chengdu 610059, P. R. China
Abstract:
Plenty of lakes in the Tibetan Plateau are sensitive to climate change and play an important role in the natural of water cycle and water balance. Using MODIS MOD09A1 and SRTM DEM as data sources, the lake boundary over 50 km2 in high flow period in the Tibetan Plateau are extracted from 2000 to 2016. The patterns and trends of lake area changes are analyzed in the respects of internal and external flow zoning, main sources of recharge, and the salinity of the lakes since 2000. Meanwhile, combining with meteorological data in Tibetan Plateau in recent 36 years, according to the meteorological elements zoning of change trend, the relationship between the lake area changes and the climatic factors is primary discussed in Tibetan Plateau. The main conclusions are as follows:138 lakes more than 50 km2 are overall tend to expand significantly, with 2340.67 km2 increased in area and a growth rate of 235.52 km2/a. Among them, dilated lakes, shrinked lakes and stable lakes are accounted for 67.39%, 12.32% and 20.29%, respectively. The expansion trend of inflow lakes is significant, while the outflow lakes is less significant. Lakes with glacier water as the main source of recharge is expanded significantly, so do lakes with surface runoff and river recharge as main sources. Saline and semi-saline lakes also exhibit a trend of expansion. As for the freshwater lakes, the three types of expansion, atrophy, and stabilization are relatively balanced. The climate of the Tibetan Plateau presents a warmer and more humid tendency. Meanwhile, there are distinguished regional correlation between lake area changes and climate change. The results of change trend zoning of air temperature and precipitation indicate that the degree of lake expansion of Zone Ⅰ where air temperature and precipitation are increasing significantly is greater than that of Zone Ⅴ where air temperature decreases and precipitation increases. In turn, Zone Ⅱ with increasing air temperature and precipitation, Zone Ⅳ in which air temperature is decreasing and precipitation is increasing, and Zone Ⅲ with increasing air temperature and decreasing precipitation in Tibetan Plateau. The recharge of glacier melt water caused by air temperature rise has a significant effect on the expansion of lake area in Zone Ⅰ, Ⅱ, and Ⅲ. In addition, the rate of lake expansion is significantly increasing due to the increase of precipitation. The lake area expansion in Zone Ⅳ and Ⅴ is mainly affected by the increase of precipitation. On the whole, air temperature mainly affects lakes with glacier melt water as the main source of recharge and precipitation mainly affects lakes with precipitation and surface runoff as the main sources of recharge.
Key words:  Tibetan Plateau  lake area  climate change  MODIS  remote sensing
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