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引用本文:刘婷婷,王晓锋,袁兴中,龚小杰,侯春丽,杨华.湖、库水体N2O排放研究进展.湖泊科学,2019,31(2):319-335. DOI:10.18307/2019.0202
LIU Tingting,WANG Xiaofeng,YUAN Xingzhong,GONG Xiaojie,HOU Chunli,YANG Hua.Review on N2O emission from lakes and reservoirs. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(2):319-335. DOI:10.18307/2019.0202
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湖、库水体N2O排放研究进展
刘婷婷1,2, 王晓锋1,2, 袁兴中1,2,3,4, 龚小杰1,2, 侯春丽1,5, 杨华1,2
1.长江上游湿地科学研究重庆市重点实验室, 重庆 401331;2.重庆师范大学地理与旅游学院, 重庆 401331;3.重庆大学煤矿灾害动力学与控制国家重点实验室, 重庆 400030;4.重庆大学资源及环境科学学院, 重庆 400030;5.重庆师范大学生命科学学院, 重庆 401331
摘要:
湖、库水体是重要的N2O排放源,在全球氮素循环及全球气候变化中具有重要作用.本文综述了目前有关湖、库水体N2O排放研究进展,重点介绍湖、库水体N2O产生和排放的过程、不同时空尺度的排放特征、N2O排放的影响因子框架及监测方法.湖、库水体N2O不仅源于内部微生物硝化作用、反硝化作用、硝化-反硝化耦合作用、脱氮作用以及极少数底栖无脊椎动物代谢过程,同时流域上游河流汇入、地表径流输入、污水排放以及地下水排泄等构成湖、库水体N2O的重要外源,但目前对内源/外源的相对贡献的定量化研究不足;湖、库水体N2O排放方式包括扩散、植物传输及少量气泡排放,对水库而言,大坝下游水电涡轮机形成的脱气作用可能是N2O排放的潜在途径.对文献综合分析表明,湖、库水体N2O排放通常呈现明显的季节变化(夏季>冬季)和日变化,同时在全球(一般低纬度>高纬度)、区域及水体内部等不同尺度上表现出显著的空间变异性;这种时空变异特征主要受到湖、库自身理化因子(温度、营养盐、溶解氧、C/N、水文)、生物因子(水生植物、藻华)以及陆域人类活动(污水排放、农业活动以及城市化等)的影响;湖、库N2O排放不同监测方法的差异也是潜在的影响因素,传统的漂浮箱法和薄边界层法均可能低估水体N2O排放通量,未来需将传统的监测方法与新型的涡度相关法相结合,减小监测方法的不确定性.结合当前湖、库水体N2O排放的研究不足,建议未来可以从湖、库N2O产生的微生物机制,区域尺度上人类活动与湖、库群N2O排放的耦合关系,水陆交错带的产、排过程,变化环境下的湖、库N2O排放以及监测方法等方面深入研究.
关键词:  湖、库系统  N2O排放  产生和排放过程  时空变异性  影响因子
DOI:10.18307/2019.0202
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41807321)、重庆市基础研究与前沿探索项目(cstc2018jcyjAX0672)和重庆市教委科学技术研究项目(KJQN201800530)联合资助.
Review on N2O emission from lakes and reservoirs
LIU Tingting1,2, WANG Xiaofeng1,2, YUAN Xingzhong1,2,3,4, GONG Xiaojie1,2, HOU Chunli1,5, YANG Hua1,2
1.Chongqing Key Laboratory of Wetland Science Research of the Upper Yangtze River, Chongqing 401331, P. R. China;2.College of Geography and Tourism, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, P. R. China;3.State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, P. R. China;4.College of Resource and Environmental Science, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030, P. R. China;5.College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, P. R. China
Abstract:
Lakes and reservoirs act as a "sink" of terrestrial and anthropogenic nitrogen, and their water-atmosphere interface plays an important role in global N2O biogeochemical cycle. This paper summarizes main research on the progress and emission of N2O, the process of N2O generation and emission in lakes and reservoirs, temporal and spatial variation characteristics, influencing factors and monitoring methods of N2O emission. Researchers found that N2O produced in lakes and reservoirs is not only by four microbial internal processes, but also by metabolic processes of some benthic invertebrates. Meanwhile, the inflow of upstream rivers, the input of surface runoff, sewage discharge and groundwater discharge also constitute important external sources of N2O in lakes and reservoirs. Nevertheless, systematic research on quantifying the relative contribution of endogenous and exogenous sources are insufficient. Current knowledge reaches consensus that the N2O emission of lakes and reservoirs include diffusion, plant transmission and small amount of bubble emission. Besides the degassing effect of hydropower turbines in the downstream of the dam may be a potential way of N2O emission. Research has shown the remarkable seasonal variation (summer> winter) and daily change of the N2O emission. In the meantime, significant spatial variability was observed globally and regionally (low latitude > high latitude). For a better understanding of how the changing environment and human activities may modify the dynamic of N2O generation and emission from lakes and reservoirs, this paper discusses the potential impact factors of N2O emission from lakes and reservoirs and constructs a system framework of N2O emission influencing factors. This spatial and temporal variation is mainly caused by the physical and chemical factors of lakes and reservoirs (temperature, nutrients, dissolved oxygen, C/N hydrology and meteorological), biological factor (aquatic plants and algal blooms), and human activities (sewage disposal, agricultural activities and urbanization). In addition, different monitoring methods are also potentially influencing factors that both floating box method and the thin-layer boundary method may underestimate the N2O emission flux. Therefore, in the future, traditional monitoring methods should be combined with eddy covariance method to reduce the monitoring uncertainty. Base on the current knowledge gaps, we point out that in the future the N2O emission from lakes and reservoirs could reinforce from the microbial mechanism of N2O production in lakes and reservoirs. Research in future should strengthen the coupling relationship between human activities and N2O emission from lakes and reservoirs on a regional scale and pay more attention to the N2O emission from the amphibious zone, and monitor methods.
Key words:  Lakes and reservoirs  N2O emission  production and emission processes  spatiotemporal variability  controls
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