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引用本文:于超,周立志,宋昀微.人为干扰对越冬后期稻田中小天鹅(Cygnus columbianus)昼间能量消耗的影响.湖泊科学,2019,31(1):195-201. DOI:10.18307/2019.0118
YU Chao,ZHOU Lizhi,SONG Yunwei.The effects of human activities on diurnal energy expenditure of Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus foraging in paddy field during the late wintering period. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(1):195-201. DOI:10.18307/2019.0118
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人为干扰对越冬后期稻田中小天鹅(Cygnus columbianus)昼间能量消耗的影响
于超1,2, 周立志1,2, 宋昀微3
1.安徽大学资源与环境工程学院, 合肥 230601;2.安徽大学生物多样性与湿地生态研究所, 合肥 230601;3.升金湖国家级自然保护区, 池州 247200
摘要:
能量的消耗模式是动物适合度的重要体现,动物的日常行为和栖息地特征共同影响日能量消耗.稻田生境是越冬水鸟重要的觅食场所之一,同时又容易受到人为干扰,越冬水鸟应对日间不同的人为干扰因素而合理进行能量消耗配置,对于在越冬后期为迁徙而贮备能量的水鸟来说尤为迫切和重要.本文采用焦点动物取样法,观测越冬后期稻田中小天鹅(Cygnus columbianus)在干扰和非干扰环境中昼间行为的时间分配,推算其能量消耗.结果表明,小天鹅在干扰环境中警戒行为的时间分配和能量消耗、单次警戒时间和警戒频次均显著大于非干扰环境,游泳频次也是如此;在稻田中的昼间警戒能耗随干扰时间增加而增加,随干扰距离增加而降低.干扰造成小天鹅减少高能耗的取食行为,增加低能耗的警戒行为,降低昼间总能量的消耗.
关键词:  越冬小天鹅  干扰  行为时间分配  能量消耗  升金湖
DOI:10.18307/2019.0118
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31472020)资助.
The effects of human activities on diurnal energy expenditure of Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus foraging in paddy field during the late wintering period
YU Chao1,2, ZHOU Lizhi1,2, SONG Yunwei3
1.School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, P. R. China;2.Institute of Biodiversity and Wetland Ecology, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, P. R. China;3.Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve of Anhui Province, Chizhou 247200, P. R. China
Abstract:
Energy expenditure strategy of birds that suffered human disturbance is interesting because it affects birds' fitness, which is influenced by daily activities budget and habitats characteristics of birds involve in. It is important to migratory waterbirds inhabited in paddy field accommodate energy configuration response to risks from human disturbance as this kind of habitat is increasing important for waterbirds over the world. To better understand the energy expenditure in disturbance environmental conditions, here, using Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus wintering in a paddy field of Shengjin Lake, China, we employed a focal sampling approach to record their responses and calculatee the diurnal energy expenditure (DEE). The percent of time being vigilant and it's energetic cost, a vigilance bout and frequency, swimming frequency under disturbed situation were significant longer than those under the undisturbed situation. The energetic costs of alert increased with the interference time and decreased with interference distance adversely. Due to disturbance reduced high-cost feeding and increased low-cost alerting, the DEE of swans under disturbed situation was less than that under undisturbed situation.
Key words:  Wintering swans  disturbance  behavioral budgets  diurnal energy expenditure budgets  Shengjin Lake
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