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引用本文:刘尚武,张小峰,许全喜,张欧阳,黄俊健.三峡水库区间来沙量估算及水库排沙效果分析.湖泊科学,2019,31(1):28-38. DOI:
LIU Shangwu,ZHANG Xiaofeng,XU Quanxi,ZHANG Ouyang,HUANG Junjian.Estimation of sediment amount from ungauged area and analysis of sediment delivery ratio of Three Gorges Reservoir. J. Lake Sci.2019,31(1):28-38. DOI:
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三峡水库区间来沙量估算及水库排沙效果分析
刘尚武1, 张小峰1, 许全喜2, 张欧阳2, 黄俊健1
1.武汉大学水资源与水电工程科学国家重点实验室, 武汉 430072;2.长江水利委员会水文局, 武汉 430010
摘要:
三峡水库是控制和开发长江的重要工程,具有巨大的防洪、发电、航运等综合效益.水库排沙比是反映水库拦截泥沙程度的重要指标.针对目前三峡水库排沙比计算没有考虑三峡水库区间来沙,结果偏大的问题,依据三峡水库区间水文站2003-2016年实测水文资料,采用水文学法估算了三峡水库区间月、年入库输沙量,分析了三峡水库排沙效果及主要影响因素.结果表明:1)三峡水库区间年均来沙量约1775×104 t,占总入库沙量的10.3%,近年来沙占比有所增大,其中2013-2016年来沙量占总入库沙量的26.9%;2)三峡水库年均排沙比为21.6%,其中围堰蓄水期为34.1%,初期蓄水期为17.0%,试验性蓄水期为15.4%;3)三峡水库采用"蓄清排浑"方式运行,主汛期7-9月的排沙比一般大于枯季,但2013年以后,出现了主汛期排沙比小于枯季的现象;4)入库细颗粒泥沙的排沙比大于粗颗粒泥沙,其中粒径d ≤ 0.062 mm的细颗粒泥沙排沙比为23.4%,0.062 mm0.125 mm的中粗沙排沙比分别为5.5%和11.1%;5)三峡水库排沙比汛期主要受V/Q影响,枯季主要受入库含沙量的影响;当V/Q约为170×104 s时,水库排沙效果最差;分别建立了汛期和枯季排沙比经验计算式.本文的研究成果可为三峡水库水沙优化调度等提供参考.
关键词:  悬移质  排沙比  来沙量  三峡水库区间
DOI:
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFA0600901)资助.
Estimation of sediment amount from ungauged area and analysis of sediment delivery ratio of Three Gorges Reservoir
LIU Shangwu1, ZHANG Xiaofeng1, XU Quanxi2, ZHANG Ouyang2, HUANG Junjian1
1.State Key Laboratory of Water Resource and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, P. R. China;2.Bureau of Hydrology, Changjiang Water Resource Commission, Wuhan 430010, P. R. China
Abstract:
The Three Gorges Reservoir with huge comprehensive benefits of flood controlling, power generation and navigation is an important project for Yangtze River. The sediment delivery rate is also an important index for the degree of intercepting sediment in a reservoir. In the view of the current research of sediment delivery ratio without consideration of the sediment from the ungauged area, at present, the result of calculation was larger than that of reality. On the basis of the measured hydrological data of the Three Gorges Reservoir area hydrological station from 2003 to 2016, the amount of sediment from ungauged area was calculated by the hydrological method. Meanwhile, the sediment delivery rates and main influencing factors were analyzed. The results were shown as follows:1) the annual average sediment yield of the ungauged area was about 1775×104 t, accounting for 10.3% of the total annual average sediment yield of the Three Gorges Reservoir. In recent year, the ratio of sediment from the ungauged area has increased, and that of annual average was 26.9% from 2013 to 2016. 2)The annual sediment discharge ratio of the Three Gorges reservoir was 21.6%, and 34.1% in the cofferdam storage period, 17.0% in the initial storage period, 15.4% in the experimental water storage period. 3)Because the operation of the Three Gorges Reservoir is "store clear and discharge muddy water", the sediment delivery rate of 7-9 mouths in main flood season is generally greater than that of the dry season. But after 2013, the sediment delivery rate of main flood season is less than that of the dry season. 4)The sediment delivery ratio of the fine sediment in the reservoir was larger than the coarse sediment, and the sediment delivery ratio of the particle size d ≤ 0.062 mm, 0.062 mm0.125 mm was 23.4%, 5.5% and 11%, respectively. 5)The main affecting factor of sediment delivery rate in flood season was V/Q, but that in dry season was sediment content. When V/Q was about 170×104 s, the effect of sediment delivery in the Three Gorges Reservoir was the worst. At last, the empirical formula of sediment delivery rate of the Three Gorges Reservoir was established for flood season and dry season, respectively. The result of this paper could provide reference for optimal operation of water and sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir. The results of this paper can provide reference for optimal operation of water and sediment in the Three Gorges Reservoir.
Key words:  Suspended sediment  sediment delivery ratio  sediment yield  the ungauged area of the Three Gorges Reservoir
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