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引用本文:王晓媛,江波,田志福,蔡金洲,林国俊.冬季安徽菜子湖水位变化对主要湿地类型及冬候鸟生境的影响.湖泊科学,2018,30(6):1636-1645. DOI:10.18307/2018.0615
WANG Xiaoyuan,JIANG Bo,TIAN Zhifu,CAI Jinzhou,LIN Guojun.Impact of water level changes in Lake Caizi (Anhui Province) on main wetland types and wintering bird habitat during wintering period. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(6):1636-1645. DOI:10.18307/2018.0615
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冬季安徽菜子湖水位变化对主要湿地类型及冬候鸟生境的影响
王晓媛, 江波, 田志福, 蔡金洲, 林国俊
长江水资源保护科学研究所, 武汉 430051
摘要:
“引江济淮”工程调度运行后,水位抬升将影响越冬候鸟适宜生境(泥滩地和草本沼泽)的出露,并进而影响湿地植物和底栖生物出露程度,对越冬候鸟的栖息环境和食物可及性产生不利影响,尤其是影响到挖掘啄取集团和浅水取食集团的越冬水鸟.基于安徽菜子湖不同水位对应的遥感影像解译结果,分析了水位变化对菜子湖泥滩地和草本沼泽出露的影响,并构建了菜子湖主要湿地类型的面积对水位响应的函数关系.结果表明:候鸟越冬期菜子湖泥滩地和草本沼泽面积与水位均呈极显著负相关.当水位到达8.1和8.6 m时,菜子湖将分别减少约16.8%和10.0%以及30.4%和22.2%的泥滩地和草本沼泽.1956-2015年候鸟越冬期各月水位的变化趋势及水位大于8.1 m的机率分析表明,工程调度运行会对菜子湖生态水文过程产生一定影响.结果可为模拟不同水位对菜子湖主要湿地类型及面积的影响提供依据,并从工程的角度为菜子湖水位优化调度提供科学依据.但由于数据缺乏,未全面阐述湿地类型面积和生境的关系,研究存在一定的局限性.建议加强菜子湖候鸟越冬期生境适应性调度研究及生态环境监测,进一步掌握菜子湖越冬候鸟适宜生境及重要越冬水鸟种群数量和分布格局对水位变化的响应,用科学实验和生态环境监测数据来加强菜子湖水位优化调度.
关键词:  菜子湖  湿地  冬候鸟生境  水位变化
DOI:10.18307/2018.0615
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研发计划项目(2017YFC0405303)和水利部预算项目(H017001,H017002)联合资助.
Impact of water level changes in Lake Caizi (Anhui Province) on main wetland types and wintering bird habitat during wintering period
WANG Xiaoyuan, JIANG Bo, TIAN Zhifu, CAI Jinzhou, LIN Guojun
Changjiang Water Resources Protection Institute, Wuhan 430051, P. R. China
Abstract:
After the operation of the Yangtze-to-Huaihe Water Diversion Project, the water level rise will have certain submergence impact on the suitable wintering habitat for migratory birds (mudflats and herbaceous marshes), and adversely affect their habitat and food accessibility. Based on the interpretation results of remote sensing images corresponding to different water levels in Lake Caizi, this paper analyzes the effects of water level changes on the exposure of the mudflats and the herbaceous marshes in the Lake Caizi, and establishes the response function of the area of main wetland types to the water level changes. The results showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the habitat area of mudflats and herbaceous marshes and water level during the overwintering period. The area of mudflats and herbaceous marshes was 6057.6 ha and 4460.9 ha respectively at current water level of 6.97 m. When the water level rises to 7.5 m, it will lose about 13.7% of mudflats and 5.5% of herbaceous marsh habitats. When the water level rises to 8.1 m, it will lose about 16.8% of mudflats and 10.0% of herbaceous marsh habitats. When the water level rises to 8.6 m, it will lose about 30.4% of mudflats and 22.2% of herbaceous marsh habitats. From 1956 to 2015, the trend of water level and the probability of water level exceeding 8.1 m during the overwintering period of migratory birds both indicate that the engineering dispatching operation will have certain influence on the ecological hydrological process of the Lake Caizi. This paper on the one hand provides the basis for simulating the effects of different water levels on the area of main wetland types in Lake Caizi. On the other hand, it provides the scientific basis for the water level optimization of the Lake Caizi from the engineering perspective. However, due to the lack of data, this article has some limitations in fully explaining the relationship between the area of wetland types and habitat. It is suggested to implement experimental study on habitat adaptation and ecological environment monitoring during the overwintering period of migratory birds to further understand the response of suitable habitat, and important wintering bird population and distribution pattern to water level changes.
Key words:  Lake Caizi  wetland  wintering bird habitat  water level change
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