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引用本文:刘东红,陶玉强,周文佐.持久性有机污染物在中国湖泊生物中分布与富集的研究进展.湖泊科学,2018,30(3):581-596. DOI:10.18307/2018.0301
LIU Donghong,TAO Yuqiang,ZHOU Wenzuo.Distribution and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic organisms of Chinese lakes. J. Lake Sci.2018,30(3):581-596. DOI:10.18307/2018.0301
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持久性有机污染物在中国湖泊生物中分布与富集的研究进展
刘东红1,2, 陶玉强1, 周文佐2
1.中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所湖泊与环境国家重点实验室, 南京 210008;2.西南大学地理科学学院, 重庆 400715
摘要:
持久性有机污染物(POPs)在环境中分布广泛且持久存在并具有高生物富集性,通常具有致癌、致畸、致突变等危害.湖泊是POPs的主要环境归宿之一,湖泊中的POPs可被水生生物富集并通过食物网传递,对生态系统及人体健康构成极大的危害.中国是POPs生产及使用大国,也是世界上湖泊较多的国家之一.湖泊生物尤其是水产品是中国人饮食中的重要组成部分,因此POPs在中国湖泊生物体中的富集对当地的生态系统和人体健康存在很大的潜在危害.本文通过收集、分析1997年2017年7月公开发表的中国湖泊生物体POPs数据,发现中国湖泊生物中POPs富集研究主要集中在东部平原湖区,青藏高原及云贵高原湖区有少量研究;不同POPs在不同湖区湖泊生物中富集的含量存在较大差异,DDTs和HCHs在各湖区生物中普遍检出且存在明显差异,东部平原湖区生物体内多氯联苯、多溴联苯醚含量高于其他湖区生物体内含量,其他POPs在湖泊生物体内的富集研究相对较少且主要集中在东部湖泊.中国湖泊生物中DDTs、HCHs、多环芳烃、多氯联苯、多溴联苯醚、多氯苯并二噁英和多氯苯并呋喃、全氟化合物、全氟辛酸、有机锡及六溴环十二烷脂肪归一化后的平均含量分别为454.56±653.40、153.57±435.99、2849.49±3092.52、118.40±20.28、18.40±20.28、17.43±19.43、147.17±192.93、1542.18±1347.64、11380.75±5316.75和2.19±1.92 ng/g.POPs在中国湖泊生物体内的含量水平与生物所处营养级、脂肪含量和年龄呈正相关,但并非完全一致,还受到生活习性、生物物种与结构、生存环境及生物量等多种因素的影响;生物不同组织对POPs的富集能力有较大差异,内脏器官对POPs的富集能力明显高于肌肉组织.
关键词:  持久性有机污染物  生物富集  湖泊  中国  食物网  生态风险
DOI:10.18307/2018.0301
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41471400)、江苏省杰出青年基金项目(BK20170049)、中国科学院青年创新促进会项目、国家科技基础性工作专项(2014FY110400,2015FY110900-03)和中国科学院南京地理与湖泊研究所交叉团队项目(NIGLAS2016TD01)联合资助.
Distribution and accumulation of persistent organic pollutants in aquatic organisms of Chinese lakes
LIU Donghong1,2, TAO Yuqiang1, ZHOU Wenzuo2
1.State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, P. R. China;2.School of Geography Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, P. R. China
Abstract:
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are usually carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They are widely and persistently present in the environment, and have high bioaccumulation ability by organisms. Lake is one of the main environmental sinks for POPs. POPs in lakes can be accumulated by aquatic organisms and transported through the food webs, which pose great risks to ecosystem and human health. China has the large usage and production of POPs, which also has large amount of lakes. Lake organisms, especially aquatic products, are important parts of the Chinese diet, thereby the enrichment of POPs in Chinese lakes and organisms poses great risks to the local ecosystems and human health. We collected and analyzed large amount of published data on POPs in organisms of Chinese lakes until July 2017. We found that previous studies on bioaccumulation of POPs in Chinese lakes mainly focused in the eastern plain lake area. There were only a few studies in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau Lake area. The concentrations of different POPs varied greatly in different lake organisms. DDTs were widely detected with little difference in concentrations in organisms in the studied lakes. The concentrations of HCHs, PCBs; and PBDEs in organisms in the eastern lake area were significantly higher than those in other lake areas. Only a few studies focused on bioaccumulation of other POPs by organisms in lakes, and were mainly in the lakes in the eastern plain. The concentrations of DDTs, HCHs, PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, PFOSs, PFOAs, Organotins and PHBCDs were 454.56±653.40, 153.57±435.99, 2849.49±3092.52, 159.22±272.36, 18.40±20.28, 17.43±19.43, 147.17±192.93, 1542.18±1347.64 and 2.19±1.92 ng/g in organisms of Chinese lakes based on the lipid content. Bioaccumulation of POPs in lake organisms is generally positively related to the trophic level, lipid content and age of organisms, but it is not always true. It is also impacted by factors such as living habits, biological species and composition, living environment and biomass. Bioaccumulation of POPs was also different in different tissues. Bioaccumulation of POPs was higher in liver, gallbladder, heart and head than that in muscle tissues.
Key words:  Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)  bioaccumulation  lakes  China  food web  ecological risk
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